Copyright Terry MacKinnell 2016 (under the Berne Convention)
A horoscope at the time of birth for a person (or event) provides the most critical astrological insights. The insights may be based on western astrology, Indian (Vedic) astrology, Chinese astrology, horary astrology or whatever form of astrology that is preferred. However, very few astrologers know that each person is also born into an astrological generation defined by one or more sub-periods of the astrological ages such as the Age of Aquarius. The birth generation is incredibly accurate in describing the nature of each generation and predicting what major events they will experience in life as each new generational period appears. Furthermore, it is not limited to famous or notable people as it applies to everyone, though the unique way this will occur for each person will be based on their standard natal horoscopes etc. combined with normal predictive techniques.
The following table displays generations commencing May 1799 until September 2044.
Table 1 – Starting dates for each generation (or period)
The first notable point in Table 1 is that each generation (or period) is composed of two signs. These two signs are identical in every second generation so there is a 50% chance to be born into one. Someone born in June 1978 is born into a Virgo-Virgo generation. There is no advantage of being born into a double-sign generation. For example, the Virgo-Virgo generation merely maximizes its projection of Virgo archetypes compared to the following Virgo-Leo generation. There are both advantages and disadvantages to being born in a double-sign generation. The case studies at the end of this introduction will demonstrate how notable people have responded to their generational signature and their changing fortunes.
The astrological generation a person/event is born into will not correlate to any personality trait of the person, but will define the specific characteristics embedded within the whole generation. For example, if someone was born in a Pisces generation, they will be of a generation that will contribute far more than a normal generation’s share of actors, poets and abstract painters but they will not have a Pisces personality. Similarly, Aries’ generations contribute far more warmongers and dynamic active people compared to other generations. These generations are basically concerned with peoples’ roles in society and the world.
Each of the above generations are almost 7 ½ years. What creates these generations? Basically, each astrological age of approximately 2,150 years has 12 sub-ages of about 179 years each. Drilling down even further, each sub-age has 12 micro-ages of almost 15 years each. It is these 15 year micro-ages that provide the underlying basis for Table 1.
(For those astrologers technically inclined, Table 1 is based on a combination of 15 years micro-ages and 15 years quasi micro-ages. Quasi micro-ages are delayed half a micro-age. Half of 15 years is 7 ½ years. This almost 7 ½ year delay provides the timescale for each of these generations See The Age of Aquarius for Dummies for a detailed background explanation of macro-astrology).
It is also possible to combine pairs of the generations in Table 1 which commence with the same sign into a super-generation. For example the Sagittarius –Sagittarius generation commencing in February 1948 can be combined with the following Sagittarius–Scorpio generation commencing in July 1955 to create a Sagittarius super-generation commencing in February 1948 and lasting until December 1962. This super-generation is not normally called the Sagittarius super-generation as they are commonly known as Baby Boomers.
The following graph displays the recorded births in the USA with the Baby Boomers highlighted in red.
According to Wikipedia, the Baby Boomers are that generation of people born from 1946 to 1964, compared to February 1948 to December 1962 for the Sagittarius super-generation. The Sagittarius super-generation is a little tighter than the common dates assigned to the Baby Boomers because the generational theorists do not have the advantage of understanding the correlations to the sub-periods of the astrological ages. Nevertheless their observations are relatively accurate which is to be expected by professionals in any field. The above graph depicts a boom in births which should be expected from a Sagittarius generation as a key archetype associated with Sagittarius is expansion combined with fortunate circumstances.
“In Europe and North America boomers are widely associated with privilege, as many grew up in a time of widespread government subsidies in post-war housing and education, and increasing affluence.”
Interestingly this reference is from Born at the Right Time by Doug Owram. Other notable facts associated with the Baby Boomers are their increased activity, better health (compared to previous generations) and they grew up with the firm expectation the world would improve with time – in other words, they had Sagittarius’ optimistic outlook. Their levels of income were unprecedented and therefore they could engage in excessive consumerism and another archetype associated with Sagittarius – a lot of foreign travel. Baby Boomers considered themselves as a special generation, markedly different from previous generations. One description of the Baby Boomers was they were “the pig in the python”. As early as 1948, Newsweek proclaimed “Babies Mean Business” indicating they could see the resultant economic boom to follow the massive increase in the birthrate.
Baby Boomers may be more philanthropic than previous generations as in the USA, one third of Baby Boomers indicated they would prefer leaving their inheritances to charities rather than to their children. Another generational expression of the Baby Boomers was rock and roll – they were the first generation to grow up with TV. Another comment was: “never before in history had youth been so idealized as they were at this moment”. The key political associations to the Baby Boomers are the revolutionary counterculture of the 1960s, the African American civil rights movement (in the USA) and the feminist cause of the 1970s.
Continuing on with the example of the Baby Boomers, the Sagittarius super-generation is also situated in a larger Sagittarius macro-generation comprised of three generations associated with Sagittarius. This super-generation commenced when Sagittarius first arrived until it finally departed. Referring to Table 2, Sagittarius first appeared with the Capricorn-Sagittarius generation in August 1940, and departed with the end of the Sagittarius-Scorpio generation in December 1962.
Table 2 – Sagittarius macro-generation
I will not normally be referencing macro-generations however the three parts of the Sagittarius macro-generation displayed in Table 2 each have historical correlations that have been duly noted. Firstly, let’s examine the early Capricorn-Sagittarius generation (Aug 1940 – Feb 1948). If you examine the Baby Boomers’ births graph, you will notice that the birth rate began to seriously increase as soon as the Capricorn-Sagittarius generation commenced in August 1940, even though the Baby Boomers generation technically did not commence until much later in the decade. The rise in birth rates commencing in 1940 indicates the arrival of expansionary Sagittarius with the Capricorn-Sagittarius generation.
Researchers however have noticed a difference amongst Baby Boomers that correspond remarkably well with the three divisions of the Sagittarius macro-generation in Table 2. The Capricorn-Sagittarius generation (Aug 1940 – Feb 1948) or Pre-Boomers were technically born before the Baby Boomer generation but many in this generation strongly influenced the Baby Boomers, mainly through music such as the Beatles (all born between 1940 and 1943), Bob Dylan (b.1941), and the Rolling Stones (all born in the early 1940s except Bill Wyman b.1936). Other key musicians and other leaders that influenced the Baby Boomers include Frank Zappa (b.1940), Joan Baez and Jesse Jackson (both born 1941), Muhammad Ali, Stephen Hawking and Jimmy Hendrix (all born 1942), Bob Marley, Eric Clapton and Van Morrison (all born 1945), plus Elton John and Carlos Santana (both born 1947).
The first half of the Baby Boomers were the people born from February 1948 until July 1955 and could be labelled as the ‘pure’ Baby Boomers represented astrologically as the Sagittarius-Sagittarius generation. Some researchers have used 1955 as a key demarcation point for the Baby Boomers born 1946 to 1955 with the second group 1955 to 1964. The first group were the main participants in the revolutionary 1960s and early 70s. Their key characteristics were their experimental nature, individualism, free spirited and orientation towards social causes. The second group were the Sagittarius-Scorpio generation and some researchers (who are not astrologers), have noticed the arrival of Scorpio archetypes in the Baby Boomers part two. The new characteristics for post 1955 Baby Boomers are: less optimism, distrust of the government and general cynicism.
The Baby Boomers were succeeded by Generation X with the notable impact that according to observers, Generation X was the first modern generation to enjoy a lesser quality of life compared to the generation preceding it, thus cementing the Sagittarius bulge of the Sagittarian Baby Boomers. The main definition for Generation X is that this generation was born after the Baby Boomers and is usually said to be those born from 1961 to 1981. The starting date is close enough to December 1962 for the start of the Scorpio-Scorpio generation.
In the preface to Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion, Professor Christine Henseler summarized it as:
“a generation whose worldview is based on change, on the need to combat corruption, dictatorships, abuse, AIDS, a generation in search of human dignity and individual freedom, the need for stability, love, tolerance, and human rights for all”.
Many of the these attributes are closely linked to Scorpio such as “change”, AIDS, the search for human dignity and the one thing missing in Scorpio – stability. Interestingly, the attributes of stability and tolerance are normally associated Scorpio’s opposite sign Taurus. Perhaps each generation recognizes what it lacks and therefore what it strives towards?
According to BBC News, Generation X members were born from 1962 to 1982. A Canadian researcher believes Generation X were those born from 1960 to 1966 closely aligned to the Scorpio-Scorpio generation (December 1962 – May 1970) followed by the “Bust Generation” 1967 to 1981 roughly aligned to the Scorpio-Virgo generation (May 1970 – October 1977). Generation X roughly coincides with the Scorpio super-generation (December 1962 to October 1977) – see Table 3.
Table 3 – the Scorpio super generation and Generation X
The timeframes assigned to Generation X do not have the same level of accuracy as for the Baby Boomers but generational theorists have to work with what they have, and Scorpio is not outwardly as noticeable a sign as Sagittarius. The bulge of Sagittarius is highly noticeable at both ends, but few of the following generations have this attribute.
Generation Y (Millennials)
The Millennials or Generation Y are usually said to be born commencing the early 1980s until the early 2000s and roughly coincide with the Virgo-Leo and Leo-Leo generations (which is the same as the underlying Leo micro-age) in the following Table 4.
Table 4 – Generation Y?
The appearance of Leo is the first appearance of a fiery generation since the Sagittarian Baby Boomers and this is reflected by the observation that the Millennials are sometimes also called Echo Boomers, referring to the generation’s size relative to the Baby Boomer generation and due to the significant increase in birth rates during the 1980s and into the 1990s. In the United States, birth rates peaked in August 1990 when Leo was near its peak strength. In his book The Lucky Few: Between the Greatest Generation and the Baby Boom, author Elwood Carlson called Millennials the “New Boomers” (born 1983 to 2001), because of the upswing in births after 1983. 1983 to 2001 is very close to the combined Virgo-Leo and Leo-Leo two generations (April 1985 – February 2000) in the above Table 4. (These two combined generations are the same as the Leo micro-age from which these 7 ½ years generations are derived).
The Leo archetype also seems to be associated with the Millennials.
“Jean Twenge, the author of the 2006 book Generation Me, considers Millennials, along with younger members of Generation X, to be part of what she calls ‘Generation Me’. Twenge attributes Millennials with the traits of confidence and tolerance, but also identifies a sense of entitlement and narcissism based on personality surveys that showed increasing narcissism among Millennials compared to preceding generations …”.
Leo is rather fond of confidence and narcissism.
Those born after the Millennial Generation have no agreed name or range of birth dates… yet. A common name given to them is Generation Z, and sources date the generation from the mid or late 1990s – or the more widely used period from the mid-2000s to the present day (2015?). 2000 to 2015 coincides with the two generations displayed in Table 5 and these two generations combined align with the underlying Cancer micro-age (2000 – 2014).
Table 5 – Generation Z
What does this all mean? It strongly insinuates that the most important astrological indicator of generations is not derived from the outer planets or from Jupiter-Saturn cycles but from the sub-periods of the ages and that the process of identifying the two aspects of the almost 15 years micro-ages, as I have presented here, is the appropriate way to identify generations astrologically. This does not mean that all those people grouped together by whatever sign Pluto, Neptune or Pisces are located in will not share some common features, but just that these features are not strong enough to be noticed by independent generational theorists compared to periods derived from micro-ages.
I first noticed this generational influence well over a decade ago when researching all the micro-ages and micro-age decans since 1791 but did not follow up on it because at that stage, my main focus was fine-tuning the accuracy of the rectification of the astrological ages by correlating ever smaller sub-periods of the astrological ages until I now believe I have it accurate to within one month.
The following case studies of Louis Pasteur, George Orwell, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Mahatma Gandhi and Albert Einstein will demonstrate the power of these generations and how each generation interfaces with the following 7 ½ year generational periods.
Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in a Virgo super-generation and Virgo-Leo generation. He discovered the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization which has become such a contentious subject in the world today. Virgo is the sign of health and Leo the sign of fame – both of which certainly applied to Pasteur as he became the ‘father of modern bacteriology’ following his discovery of vaccination to prevent illnesses. He became a professor in 1867 early in a Gemini-Taurus period. Gemini is Virgo’s 10th house of status, Taurus rules Leo’s 10th house of status, Taurus is in total harmony with Virgo at 9th house position (of universities). He became a professor in a ‘magic’ high profile period for his Virgo-Leo generation. Perhaps the recent Virgo-Leo generation (Apr 1985 – Sep 1992) will produce someone with another groundbreaking medical discovery? He died in September 1895 near the end of the Aries-Aries period (Aug 1888-Jan 1896) with Aries activating the 8th house of death to Virgo. Interestingly, the dormant anti-vaccination movement erupted into broad daylight in the mid 1970’s with the reappearance of the first of three Virgo generations/periods in 1970.
George Orwell (the source of the terms “big brother is watching you” and “the thought police”) was born in June 1903 on the exact border of an Aries-Pisces generation (Jan 1896 – Jun 1903) and Pisces-Pisces generation (Jun 1903 – Dec 1910). A person can swing either way on a cuspal month but when someone is born on the border with the second possible generation a ‘double’ generation, I use the double generation due to the way these generations have been constructed from the underlying micro-ages. Certainly the focus upon double Pisces manifested in George Orwell’s life as he was fixated upon Pisces ruled bureaucracies and mind numbing situations aptly displayed in his two most popular books: Animal Farm (p.1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (p.1949). The first book was published in a Capricorn-Sagittarius period with Capricorn ruling Pisces neutral 11th house of civic mindedness and Sagittarius ruling Pisces’ 10th house of status. The situation improved with “Nineteen Eighty-Four” published in a Sagittarius-Sagittarius period with Sagittarius promoting Pisces 10th house of status in an amplified way as it was Sagittarius-Sagittarius to Pisces-Pisces.
“Animal Farm struck a particular resonance in the post-war climate and its worldwide success made Orwell a sought-after figure.”
This period of his life reinforced the magnitude of possibilities for a Pisces-Pisces person in a 10th house Sagittarius – Sagittarius period which is the magic 10th house period for his generation. Was George Orwell attempting to introduce the opposite element to his strong Pisces be introducing a Virgo element? Certainly in his novels, he was attempting to prick the bubble of (Pisces) illusions associated with the ‘trendiness’ of communism at the time. This is what Virgo is notable for, pricking illusionary bubbles. “Animal Farm” conjures up the Virgo archetype!
Born into the Baby Boomers generation (or pure Baby Boomers) in October 1955, he is certainly the most financially successful Baby Boomer (of the Sagittarius – Sagittarius generation). Gates should have experienced a status peak in the Virgo-Virgo period (October 1977 – April 1985). His company, Microsoft, was approached by IBM in July 1980 for an operating system for its new personal computer. Soon Gates provided IBM with the operating system but retained the copyright, and the rest is history. This all occurred in the Virgo-Virgo period with Virgo doubly activating Sagittarius’ 10th house of status and recognition.
The Gates Foundation is the largest private foundation in the world and was founded in 2000, but its forerunner, the William H. Gates Foundation commenced in 1994 in the Leo-Leo period. Leo-Leo is as favorable as possible from the 9th house position to someone born in the Sagittarius-Sagittarius generation. The actual setup of the Gates Foundation in 2000 in the following Leo-Cancer period retains a strong and favorable 9th house influence but Cancer adds the 8th house which is the house of gifts (and giving away one’s wealth). It should be noted that the 8th house also includes receiving gifts and the Gates Foundation received a massive pledge donation from Warren Buffett in 2006 which was received in the following Cancer-Cancer period (July 2007-Dec 2014) when the Cancer-Cancer period maximizes its 8th house potential of gifts to a double Sagittarius individual.
Mark Zuckerberg (b.May 1984) from the Virgo-Virgo generation (October 1977 – April 1985) launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room in February 2004 in a Leo-Cancer period (February 2000 – July 2007). In May 2007 the embryonic Facebook platform was developed further and at the beginning of the Cancer-Cancer period (July 2007 – December 2014) Microsoft purchased 1.6% of Facebook shares for $US240 million. It was in the Cancer-Cancer period that Facebook became what it is today and by January 2011 Facebook was valued at $50 billion. What is the relationship between Zuckerberg’s Facebook successes in the Cancer-Cancer period to his Virgo-Virgo generation? Cancer sits at the 11th house position of friends, and that basically is what Facebook is all about – friends connecting. The double Cancer-Cancer to Virgo-Virgo increases this astrological focus upon the 11th house. Zuckerberg will probably achieve the apex of his personal success in the Gemini-Gemini period (June 2022 – November 2029) when there will be a double emphasis on the 10th house of status and success (Gemini 10th house position to Virgo).
It is certainly a reasonable possibility that being born in a double Virgo generation Zuckerberg was in the opposite position to George Orwell, but with Zuckerberg he was seeking to introduce Pisces into his world? Certainly Facebook has many of the attributes of Pisces. It is a massive organization with a glossy front and is attempting catch nearly everyone, and increasingly is using Piscean advertising methods whereby people unknowingly are promoting products to their friends. Deceptive advertising techniques is pure Pisces.
Mahatma Gandhi (b.Oct 1869) is from a Gemini-Taurus generation. He was a (Gemini) lawyer promoting (Taurus) non-violent civil disobedience. The Gemini component may help explain his ideal of religious pluralism he hoped for India in reconciling the Hindu and Muslim populations. The honorific “mahatma” was first applied in 1914 in a Pisces-Aquarius period with Pisces in the 10th house position of status to Gemini and Aquarius in the 10th house position to Taurus. (All generations will experience double strength house aspects and it is not limited to those born in a generation where both signs are the same). Pisces also aspects Taurus from the 11th house position of civic duty. He became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1921 in the Aquarius-Aquarius period with Aquarius still activating his 10th house to Taurus and positively activating his Gemini from the favorable 9th house position.
The famous Salt March against a British imposed tax occurred in 1930 in the Aquarius-Capricorn period with Aquarius in favorable 9th house aspect to Gemini, 10th house to Taurus and Capricorn ruling the 8th house of tax to Gemini and favorable 9th house to Taurus. The double influence in the case on the 9th house is interesting inasmuch the 9th house is the house of conflict to the 3rd house of short journeys. Gandhi used this famous march as opposition to the British imperialists.
Gandhi finally got his wish of self-rule for India in 1947 in the Capricorn-Sagittarius period (Aug 1940 – Feb 1948) but from the early 1940s Gandhi was challenged by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of greater India. The new Sagittarius influence, which also commenced in 1940 opposed his Gemini, and activated Taurus’ 8th house of vulnerability. Capricorn, while favorable to Taurus, again activated the 8th house to Gemini. He was assassinated in January 1948 at the very end of this period while the 8th house of death was activated in two ways.
Did Gandhi’s Gemini-Taurus generation influence orientate him towards the opposite Sagittarius-Scorpio ideals? Sagittarius is a religious and a big picture sign and even Gandhi’s “mahatma” honorific plus grand plans for India align well with Sagittarius. Scorpio is the sign of revolution, and regardless of how a revolution occurs, Gandhi spearheaded the Indian nationalist revolution against their imperialist colonial overlords.
Finally I will conclude with Albert Einstein (b.March 1879) from a Taurus-Taurus generation (September 1873 – March 1881). Arguably the most famous scientist the world has known to date and he produced the most famous scientific equation of all times: e = mc2. It also seems totally appropriate that he was born in a Taurus-Taurus generation because his famous equation redefined what matter is – it is energy. Taurus is always the sign of the basic fundamental structure, and Einstein certainly accomplished the greatest understanding of matter in his lifetime. He obtained his PhD in 1905 which has been called Einstein’s ‘annus mirabilis’ (miracle year), when he published four groundbreaking papers. This miracle year occurred in a Pisces-Pisces period (Jun 1903 – Dec 1910) doubly activating the 11th house (of higher intellectual activity?) to Taurus. Einstein became famous in 1919 when it was observed that light could be bent by a star which he had predicted. The London Times printed a banner headline that read: “Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown”. This occurred in an Aquarius-Aquarius period (May 1918-October 1925) doubly activating his 10th house of status and career and he won the Nobel Prize in 1921 in the same period. Any strong Aquarius period will also foster intellectual advance in the world.
In 1933 Einstein was visiting the USA when the Nazi’s came to power in Germany, and being a Jew, Einstein considered it prudent to avoid returning to Germany. This occurred in the Capricorn-Capricorn period (March 1933- August 1940) stimulating Taurus’ 9th house of foreign lands. Most of Einstein’s involvement with the development of the nuclear bomb occurred in the Capricorn-Sagittarius period (August 1940-February 1948) with Sagittarius ruling Taurus’ 8th house, the natural house of Scorpio and nuclear bombs. Einstein died in April 1955 near the end of the Sagittarius-Sagittarius period (February 1948 – July 1955) doubly activating the 8th house of death for Taurus.
Einstein’s Taurus-Taurus generation may have made him the new bedrock for modern science but was he also orientated towards Scorpio, Taurus’ opposite sign? Like Gandhi, he was a revolutionary, but in the field of science, and is the most revolutionary scientist of the modern world overthrowing the formerly well-establish Newtonian world view. Scorpio is also the sign of deep perception, something that Einstein appears to have had in abundance.
Generational astrology will not replace natal charts of one form or another, but these generations do provide an additional tool when examining people and events, especially famous people. However anyone, no matter how humble, will still personally experience the change in their own fortune as they wend their way through these generational periods. These periods certainly affected me as I was born in a Sagittarius-Sagittarius generation but during the Cancer-Cancer period (July 2007 – December 2014) I had my closest brush with mortality when I suddenly was required to have an operation on my heart. This Cancer-Cancer period doubly activates the 8th house of death and mortality for a double Sagittarian. The Cancer-Cancer period (July 2007 – December 2014) was particularly pernicious for many of my Baby Boomer friends with many of my acquaintances born experiencing financial disaster due to the Great Recession (Global Financial Crisis) in this Cancer-Cancer period and some even committed suicide due to their financial destitution.
Experienced astrologers will have no problem predicting life events based upon the birth generation of anyone, as determined in Table 1, and then using the house structure between signs to understand what can be expected in the following periods. In my following posts on Generational Astrology, I will be providing a review of all generations of people currently living. (For novice astrologers, and the general public, I will be providing relevant information about how to compare any two signs using the astrological house structure as each generation is reviewed).
For those readers wanting some background reading on this topic, see US Presidents in the Age of Aquarius (Revised for 2012) where I was grappling with the concept of generational astrology without being fully aware of their ultimate power and scope.
More on Micro-ages: The micro-ages form the underlying basis of the generations used in Generational Astrology. Basically, each age of some 2,150 years has 12 sub-ages of some 178 years each. Each sub-age has 12 micro-ages of almost 15 years each. Intensive research has confirmed that these micro-ages have clear and concise correlations to historical events. For example, based on Table 1, the world is currently in a Cancer macro-generation/period (Feb 2000 – Jun 2022), Cancer super-generation/period (Jul 2007 – Jun 2022) and Cancer-Gemini generation/period (Dec 2014 – Jun 2022). This means that Cancer is currently very strong in the world. The key Cancer archetypes in the world are the Middle East, the movement of people looking for a new home (refugees and illegal immigrants), China and issues related to water such as floods and droughts. For a comprehensive review of Cancer in the world see Cancer – the New Paradigm for the World.
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Details of the Book by Terry MacKinnell
US birth rates courtesy of: Saiarcot895 – Own work. Licensed under CC0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Birth_Rates.svg#/media/File:US_Birth_Rates.svg
Bill Gates: UK International Development Secretary Justine Greening meeting with Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation during his visit to London earlier today. Picture: Russell Watkins/DFID, 24 June 2015, https://www.flickr.com/photos/dfid/19111683745/ by DFID – UK Department for International Development
Mark Zuckerberg: Founder & CEO of Facebook, at the press conference about the e-G8 forum during the 37th G8 summit in Deauville, France, 26 May 2011, by Guillaume Paumier, CC-BY.
Mahatma Gandhi: https://www.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://khurpi.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Mahatma-Gandhi.jpg&imgrefurl=http://khurpi.com/in-defence-of-mahatma-gandhi/&h=1024&w=786&tbnid=VAD7dJpObGRYXM:&tbnh=186&tbnw=142&docid=KtMrZIPlocwinM&itg=1&usg=__ORhJ8D6uEqF2L0ycnwJkmsLzdX8=
Albert Einstein: Wien 1921. Foto: Albert-Einstein-Archiv, Jerusalem, Ferdinand Schmutzer, https://web.archive.org/web/20070211064905/http://www.bhm.ch/de/news_04a.cfm?bid=4&jahr=2006
 Baby boomers. (2015, November 22). Wikipedia, Retrieved 00:52, November 23, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baby_boomers&oldid=691847663
 Generation X. (2015, December 3). Wikipedia, Retrieved 02:24, December 5, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Generation_X&oldid=693622008
 A (2007-01-19). “Teaching ‘Generation X’ a lesson”, BBC News, Retrieved 2011-07-23.
 Trenton, Thomas Norman (Fall 1997). “Generation X and Political Correctness: Ideological and Religious Transformation Among Students” . Canadian Journal of Sociology 22 (4): 417–36. Retrieved 2011-06-03. In Boom, Bust & Echo, Foot (1996: 18–22) divides youth into two groups: ‘Generation X’ born between 1960 and 1966 and the ‘Bust Generation’ born between 1967 and 1979.
 Millennials. (2015, November 30), Wikipedia, Retrieved 02:51, December 5, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Millennials&oldid=693167729
Twenge, Jean M (6 March 2007). “Generation me: Why today’s young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled—and more miserable than ever before” . ISBN 978-0-7432-7698-6.
 George Orwell, “1984”, Part 1, Chapter 1, pg. 3
George Orwell. (2015, December 1),Wikipedia, Retrieved 01:37, December 2, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Orwell&oldid=693212899
 Bill Gates. (2015, December 3), Wikipedia, Retrieved 00:40, December 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_Gates&oldid=693603798
 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2015, December 11), Wikipedia, Retrieved 00:28, December 13, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_%26_Melinda_Gates_Foundation&oldid=694825847
 Mark Zuckerberg. (2015, December 4), Wikipedia, Retrieved 01:09, December 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mark_Zuckerberg&oldid=693763343
 Timeline of Facebook. (2015, October 19), Wikipedia, Retrieved 01:03, December 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_Facebook&oldid=686499033
 Mahatma Gandhi, . (2015, December 11), Wikipedia, Retrieved 23:34, December 12, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahatma_Gandhi&oldid=694802037
 Albert Einstein. (2015, December 2), Wikipedia, Retrieved 08:21, December 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Albert_Einstein&oldid=693408356