In traditional mundane astrology, the focus on nations is usually via the horoscope associated with the creation of their most recent constitution or formative legal documents like the Declaration of Independence in the USA in 1776. While these are important reference points, in macro-astrology the emphasis is not with governments but with the society that created the government and therefore the horoscope for the government is merely a subset of the nation’s identity. The government may act as head of a nation, but the nation or region has its own identity independent of the government. In 1901, Australia was created from a collection of previously independent states, but the Australian identity existed before this date. The rambunctious American identity existed before the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
For the ‘birth’ of a nation, region, state, city and so on, I take its very beginning if possible. For example, in the case of the USA, when Jamestown was first settled on May 4, 1607, this created the first contiguous settlement leading to the modern day for what would become the USA, but the identity or personality of the USA was ‘born’ in 1607. Though it is not common practice to erect a horoscope for the Jamestown settlement for the USA, this is the approach in macro-astrology.
In the case of the UK, the first settlement is unknown, so major events and developments provide strong hints at which signs support the UK and its antecedent, and which signs detract. Each sign included in the astrological signature for the UK is derived from formative periods in its history with one sign stretching back at least 4,500 years. The purpose of providing the detailed account that produced the astrological signature for the UK is for the purpose of analyzing Brexit and its impact upon the UK, and even if Brexit will proceed. In macro-astrology, a virtual horoscope for anything being investigated is desirable, and the equivalence of a horoscope is an astrological signature. An astrological signature is just a combination of zodiacal signs. With the United Kingdom, we start with Taurus appropriately as a foundation for its astrological signature.
Certainly some key elements of the British psyche were put in place during the Bronze Age in Britain (2500 BC – 800 BC) closely associated with the Taurus age overflow (2916 BC – 732 BC) when agriculture first flourished and large megalithic monuments were constructed or modified, including such sites as Avebury, Stonehenge, Silbury Hill and Must Farm. The significant cultural change in the British Isles came with the arrival of the Beaker people from Europe. A recent study showed a major genetic shift in late Neolithic/early Bronze Age Britain, so that more than 90% of Britain’s Neolithic gene pool was replaced with the coming of a people genetically similar to the Beaker people of the lower-Rhine area. This was the first of many ‘Germanic’ “invasions” which has defined the English people of today. For the most part, the different waves of Germans did not invade the British Isles, they just immigrated into it at a time when the notion of borders and countries did not exist.
By around 1600 BC, the southwest of England was experiencing a trade boom as British tin was exported across Europe. Bronze-age Britons were also skilled at making jewelry from gold. All the evidence suggests that Bronze Age Britain was, for the time, a stable, productive and affluent society, and relatively peaceful before the onslaught of the Aries age overflow (732 BC – 1433 AD). Taurus has a place in the British national psyche. It also helps explain why the British retain their anachronistic monarchy as Taurus is resistant to change. They still give aristocrats political leverage in the House of Lords.
The first well known tumultuous event in the history of the British Isles was the Roman invasion from 43 AD to 142 AD though Rome’s expansion into the island was limited to south of Hadrian’s Wall. The successful part of the invasion occurred in the Scorpio sub-age overflow (8 BC – 173 AD) and this indicates that Taurus Britannica was experiencing its ‘detriment’ under its opposite sign of Scorpio. The UK came incredibly close to being invaded in the Second World War – which was also under a Scorpio sub-age (1791 – 1970), and definitely within the Scorpio quasi sub-age (1881 – 2059). [For a detailed explanation of age sub-periods and quasi-periods, see The Age of Aquarius for Dummies]
The successful annexation and control of Britain by Rome from 43 AD to 410 AD was primarily due to Scorpio. It should be noted that this 367 year period of Roman occupation is about half the length of an age-decan, and the most powerful age-decan during this time was the Scorpio age-decan and overflow (732 BC – 8BC – 713 AD); and its overlap with the Scorpio quasi age-decan (370 BC – 352 AD) provides the ability to divide this age-decan into quarters (732 BC – 370 BC – 8BC – 352 AD – 713 AD). The most powerful quarter is always the third quarter, in this case, covering the period 8 BC – 352 AD, relatively closely aligned to the period of Roman occupation (43 AD to 410 AD). This is no accident, as this long period of foreign control aligns with Scorpio at strength, and strongly supports the argument that the British have an affinity to Taurus – the opposite sign to Scorpio, explaining why the British experience difficult times under Scorpio such as the two world wars in the modern Scorpio quasi sub-age (1881 – 2059). In addition, Scorpio holds the influential third position on Rome’s astrological signature, after Aries (1st) and Pisces (2nd) indicating that the period 8BC – 352 AD was Ancient Rome at its peak.
The Battle of Hastings in 1066 instigates the opposite context to the earlier Roman invasion. This was the last successful full-scale invasion of England, in this case by the Norman-French army under William, the Duke of Normandy, but unlike the Romans, the Normans stayed. This occurred in the Taurus sub-age overflow (894 – 1073), a sign that should be conducive the Britannica Taurus psyche and as a consequence, the Normans were not temporary residents like the Romans, but became incorporated into upper British society and were very influential in the evolution of Britain. No latter development in the evolution towards the UK has made such a profound change to Britain as the Norman invasion, and this event must be considered part of the positive construction of the future UK even though nominally, an invasion is usually seen as a negative development.
Cancer is most likely part of the UK’s core astrological signature, and is probably the source of the British expression “an Englishman’s house is their castle”. However, a mere expression is insufficient bedrock for including Cancer into the UK’s astrological signature. The best supporting evidence for the association of Cancer with the UK is found in historical periods associated with Cancer. The first support comes from the Pisces age (732 BC – 1433 AD) in its Cancer quasi age-decan (352 AD – 1072) which was the period when all the final pieces were put into place for the creation of the modern UK. Romanized Britain in 352 quickly saw in the following century the departure of their Roman overlord and immigration of some Germanic tribes which fundamentally changed the language, culture and society from its more Celtic roots.
The following invasion by the Vikings a few centuries later, again strengthened the Germanic influence as the Vikings were distantly related to the Anglo-Saxons and could partially understand each other’s language and basically created Old English as a result. However, the Vikings, as with Scandinavia, are mainly associated with Cancer, the sign of boats, and everywhere the Vikings influenced, including Russia, were left with strong Cancer archetypes. The Viking invasion is strongly associated with the peak of the Cancer quasi age-decan in the centuries surrounding 713s – the highpoint of the Cancer sub-age and overflow (533 AD – 713 – 894 AD).
The (almost) final invasion of Great Britain by William the Conqueror in 1066 provided the last major socio-political-cultural element for modern Great Britain, but the Normans were themselves the descendants of previous Viking invaders of Normandy, but by 1066, they had converted to speaking French. Therefore the sign Cancer is very strongly associated with the UK and probably its primary sign. This is supported by the fact that the UK came into existence in 1801 following the union of Great Britain with Ireland. 1801 was in the Cancer sub-age decan (1791 – 1851) of the Scorpio sub-age (1791 – 1970) but more influenced at this juncture by the Sagittarius sub-age overflow (1791 – 1970) and Sagittarius sub-age decan overflow (1791 – 1851) promoting the role of Sagittarius in the UK. The overflow period is always stronger.
There is another significant Cancer period that also demonstrates the UK’s association to Cancer. The Cancer sub-age decan and overflow (1313 – 1373 – 1433) of the last Pisces sub-age (1253 – 1433), especially in the overflow period (1373 – 1433) is associated with the famous Hundred Year’s War with France (1337 – 1453), and while this eventually turned against the British, during the Cancer period, the war went well for England and the British aristocracy invested heavily into the war due to their early victories and plunder – like a modern corporation seeking new sales territory. The Hundred Year’s War was instrumental in creating British (and French) nationalism. England subsequently succumbed to the War of Roses following the end of this Cancer period as the British nobility were upset with the loss of their French landholdings resulting in civil war.
It could also be argued that the UK was at the pinnacle of world affairs in the Cancer sub-age decan and overflow (1791 – 1851 – 1910) when ‘Brittania ruled the waves’ under Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) and the Sun never set on the British Empire. This pinnacle for the UK was short lived, as only a few years after the end of this Cancer sub-age overflow the Irish successfully revolted against British rule (except for Northern Ireland), and the two world wars shunted the UK aside as the USA took the mantle of age-empire of the Pisces-Aquarian age similar to Ancient Rome ascending as age-empire of the Aries-Pisces age one age ago.
Another reason for the astrological justification of the anachronistic British royalty is to associate the UK with Leo (and Capricorn). The last Leo period of strength (sub-age decan or larger) was the Leo sub-age decan and overflow (1612 – 1672 – 1731) of the Capricorn-Sagittarius sub-age (1612 -1791). It was in this period that the precursor to the UK was formed – the Kingdom of Great Britain, commencing in 1707, which united the kingdoms of England, including Wales, and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain but excluding Ireland.
If the legend of King Arthur has any grounding in an historical person, this person most likely straddled the 5th and 6th centuries AD in an earlier Leo quasi sub-age (443 – 623 AD). King Arthur defeated dragons, witches and so on and was the leader of a band of superheroes who took the role of the mythological royal savior. Nearly all the modern legend about King Arthur can be ignored as pure fiction. If the earliest references to Arthur have any credibility then he was probably a valiant warrior.
What was believed previously to be pertinent was that Arthur was probably involved in the early clashes with the invading Germanic tribes. There was the battle of Mount Badon (c.490 – 517) between the defending Britons and the invading Anglo-Saxons, and it is believed that this battle halted or slowed down the advancing Germans who were streaming into Great Britain and creating Saxon England that was to rule England from around 550 to 1066 – a period of 516 years. This is in the order of magnitude of an age-decan and closely aligned with the Cancer quasi age-decan (353 – 1080), a favorable sign for the UK, especially with respect to the (Cancer) immigrants but not to the authority of the (Capricorn) government. There is no evidence that the Germans that arrived in Britain at this time involved a military invasion and were not perceived as enemies by the indigenous British people.
It is worth noting that the British affinity to their queens possibly found its inception with the warrior-queen Boudica who revolted against the Roman Empire in 60 or 61 AD. This occurred in a Scorpio-Libra sub-age (8 BC – 173 AD) and more importantly in the Gemini-Aquarius sub-age decan (53 AD – 113 AD). This timeframe is astrologically equivalent to the approaching Gemini-Aquarius sub-age decan (2029 – 2089) of the current Scorpio-Libra sub-age (1970 – 2148). However, both the modern and ancient periods Scorpio is more influential than Libra in the first half of the sub-age. Whenever Aquarius and Scorpio are strong, the British suffer or events tend to go against them. Queen Boudica failed in her revolution against the Romans but nevertheless became a folk hero.
There is also evidence that Capricorn is part of the British psyche explaining their profoundly conservative attitudes and approaches and contributing to the entrenched role the Royal Family plays in British society and politics. Also, the most successful child of Great Britain was born in 1606 with the British colonization of North America occurring near the 1612 peak of the Capricorn sub-age and overflow (1433 – 1612 – 1791). Regardless of anything else, the birth of a future age-empire is as profound a positive development as possible. For example, it could be argued that the UK’s child saved them in the Second World War.
Astrologically, Capricorn did ‘save’ the UK in the Second World War. Both world wars occurred under the Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 – 1925 – 1940), (Aquarius rules fascists on its dark side) and with a strong Leo association, the UK suffered extremely with these two wars diametrically opposed to Leo. However, within just a few years after the end of the Aquarius micro-age overflow, and with the arrival of the Capricorn micro-age overflow (1940 – 1950), the tide was turned, and America entered the war… and the rest is history.
“The toll exacted by the First World War can be seen in Britain’s conduct of its successor. The paralysis and weakness which gripped Whitehall as Hitler’s shadow extended first through Austria, then through Czechoslovakia, had no precedent since Tudor times.”
Britain’s Darkest Hour (June 1940 – June 1941) combined with the 1st World War is basically associated with the Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 – 1925 – 1940) within the Scorpio quasi sub-age (1881 – 2059) and in the Libra age-decan (1433 – 2148) – with all three signs diametrically opposed the major elements in the UK’s astrological signature. However, around October 1940 the arrival of the Capricorn-Sagittarius micro-age now had two signs favorable to the UK and the removal of the detrimental influence of the Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 – 25 – 40).
Interestingly, in an earlier Capricorn sub-age overflow (1612 – 1791), Robert Walpole is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain:
“Walpole was one of the greatest politicians in British history. He played a significant role in sustaining the Whig party, safeguarding the Hanoverian succession, and defending the principles of the Glorious Revolution (1688) … He established a stable political supremacy for the Whig party and taught succeeding ministers how best to establish an effective working relationship between Crown and Parliament.”
Capricorn usually breeds strong governance which the UK has obviously benefited from time to time.
The Capricorn sub-age overflow (1612 – 1791) experienced the Glorious Revolution of 1688 with the overthrow of King James II of England by William III with a Dutch fleet and army marking the last successful invasion of England – though not of the magnitude of the Norman invasion. Though William III’s invasion cemented the political continuity in the UK hereafter, this “invasion” occurred in the sign opposite Cancer, a key sign for the UK. If Capricorn and Cancer are both in the UK’s astrological signature, there will always be inherent tensions whenever either of these signs appear. In this instance, Capricorn shores up the head of government.
The recent Virgo micro-age (1970 – 1985) had a Capricorn micro-age decan and overflow (May 1975 – Apr 1980 – April 1985) and this corresponded to Margaret Thatcher being leader of the UK Conservative Party (1975 – 1990) and Prime Minister of the UK (May 1979 – Nov 1990). Thatcher’s tenure of 11 years and 209 days as Prime Minister was the longest since Lord Salisbury left office in 1902. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and was nicknamed the ‘Iron Lady’, that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style with policies known as Thatcherism. The tensions between Cancer and Capricorn in the British psyche were exacerbated during Thatcher’s time, and her anti-democratic poll tax was intended to limit the (Cancer) general public from voting. She is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers, and her tenure constituted realignment towards neoliberal policies in the UK. Thatcher represented hard right politics and was closely aligned to President Reagan in the USA with similar policies. She introduced the new-racism to Britain that ultimately played out in the Brexit referendum.
The Capricorn micro-age and overflow (1925 – 1940 – 1955) peaking in 1940 saw the UK at is darkest hour with the rise of fascism (under Aquarius) and the almost invasion of the UK by Hitler. This suggests that either Capricorn is part of the UK’s astrological signature, as it wasn’t defeated, or that Capricorn somehow positively resonates with the UK’s Cancer in opposition? The 19th century Capricorn micro-age decan and overflow (1866 – 1871 – 1876) appropriately saw the creation of the modern conservative party assisted by Benjamin Disraeli – twice Prime Minister of the UK during this Capricorn period. Disraeli made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire.
The great success of the UK in the Victorian era (1819 – 1901) combined with its exalted rise due to the profound economic effects of the Industrial Revolution commencing around 1760 suggests a strong affinity with Sagittarius as the Sagittarius quasi sub-age (1702 – 1881) conveniently includes both the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution and UK’s period of might. In 1763, victory in the Seven Years’ War against France led to the dominance of the British Empire, which was to become the foremost global power for over a century and slowly grew to become the largest empire in history.
It was in the last Gemini sub-age and overflow (713 – 894 – 1073) that the British Isles suffered the invading Vikings and Normans. The greater strength of Cancer at that time, due to the Cancer age-decan overflow (713 AD – 1433AD) suggests that while some detrimental activity was in place (i.e. two major invasions), over the long term, these were integral elements along the way into the construction of the modern UK.
However, the Sagittarius connection is probably far older due to tin being associated with Jupiter, Sagittarius and Pisces. As previously stated “By around 1600 BC, the southwest of England was experiencing a trade boom as British tin was exported across Europe” which suggests that tin extraction commenced even earlier. This occurred in the Taurus-Aries age (2916 BC – 732 BC) with its significant Sagittarius age decan and overflow (2916 BC – 2188 BC – 1460 BC). Most of the famous henges were also constructed earlier in this Sagittarius period. Sagittarius therefore most likely has an entrenched pedigree in the history of ancient Britain.
Pisces & Aries
Pisces is always associated with islands, and the primary sign for Europe is Pisces, but to be more precise, Europe is a Pisces-Aries continent. In contrast, Ancient Rome was ruled by Aries-Pisces indicating why Europe was able to rise out of the ashes of the Western Roman Empire when Aries plummeted in strength and Pisces rose due to the end of the Aries quasi age and start of the Pisces quasi age in 352 AD.
Being a part of Europe, the UK automatically has Pisces and Aries in its sphere, but I take these as background influences. For example, the two world wars occurred in the Pisces sub-age decan overflow (1910 – 1970) of the Scorpio sub-age (1791 – 1970) but this Pisces sub-age decan overflow resonated with both the Pisces age overflow (1433 -3574) and Pisces age-decan overflow (1433 – 2148) making this the second most powerful Pisces time in the whole 26,000 year cycle of the ages after the Pisces sub-age overflow (1433 – 1612). Whenever Pisces is strong, Europe usually fractures in line with the two symbolic fish swimming in opposite directions. In the previous strongest period for Pisces in the whole 26,000 years cycle, Europe split into Catholics versus Protestants. Pisces does rule Europe, but perversely splits Europe when Pisces is powerful.
The Pisces and Aries elements were handed down to the USA by the British, and strongly contributed to the primary sign in the USA’s signature being Pisces and the involvement of Aries in the USA’s astrological signature produced its gun-toting culture as if the Wild West is a permanent feature in modern America.
It is commonly stated that Britain is better under female monarchs, and the three female monarchs touted along this line are the two Queen Elizabeth’s and Queen Victoria. Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) was queen from 1558 until 1603 and this 45 year reign is allied mainly to the Taurus sub-age decan overflow (1552 – 1612) – which also aligns with the emergent Capricorn sub-age decan, with both periods situated in the Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612). Taurus is again promoting England with the help of Capricorn. Queen Victoria’s reign (1837 – 1901) coincided with the Cancer sub-age decan overflow (1851 – 1910) and the Sagittarius quasi sub-age (1772 – 1881) with both signs strongly supporting the UK.
The current Queen Elizabeth II (r.1952+ ) is the odd queen out, with the strongest age sub-period in the vicinity being Scorpio from the Scorpio sub-age decan and overflow (1910 – 2029), a sign generally antithetical to the UK. Probably the low point of her reign was the perceived shoddy treatment handed out to Princess Diana who naturally invoked the goddess Diana and this goddess’ relationship to Cancer – a key sign for the British people. It is better that later historians cast judgement upon her reign, but one thing with strong Scorpio association that has occurred during her reign, is the transformation of the formerly aloof Royal Family to a relatable family, especially following the marriages of Prince William and Prince Harry to normal people. This may ultimately be seen to be a revolutionary step for the Royal Family taking into account its antecedents back to 1066AD?
War of the Roses (1455 – 1487) is believed to have its roots in the social and financial troubles following the bad outcome for England from the Hundred Years War with France. Though some conflict occurred before 1455 and after 1487, these 32 years is the length of a micro-age and overflow and the nominal beginning in 1455 occurred in the Scorpio micro-age (1448 – 1463) with its overflow (1463 – 1478). Scorpio has already been identified as a very difficult sign for the UK due to the entrenched Taurean nature of British society.
What may also be of relevance is that the War of the Roses occurred only a few decades inside the new Age of Aquarius (1433 – 3574) and despite the beginning of any period in macro-astrology representing its weakest time, it still usually makes a quick appearance, which catches everyone off guard, especially if the sign is Aquarius. Aquarius will undermine Leo royalty and the Leo in England’s astrological signature.
Also, a strange condition appears at the cusp of ages which raises astrological tensions in its sub-ages. For example, 1433 at the very end of the Pisces age, and midpoint of the Pisces era (732 BC – 1433 AD – 3574), represents the penultimate expression of Pisces in the 26,000 year cycle of ages. But 1433 is perversely the start of the Virgo sub-age decan (1433 – 1493) of the Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612). With Virgo opposite Pisces, these diametrically opposed zodiacal energies play out as some kind of attempt at balancing out extreme energies found at age cusps through a grating process – like fingernails scratched across a blackboard. Usually a whole sub-age would separate these sign conflicts. Therefore the War of the Roses occurred under intense astrological conditions. And of course, Virgo is opposite the background sign of Pisces in England’s and the UK’s astrological signature.
The conclusion to the War of Roses saw the House of Tudor the victor, under Henry VII, and the Tudors ruled England until the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 – almost as the end post of the Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612).
Commonwealth of England (1649 – 1660) under Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) including the execution of King Charles I in 1649, goes completely against the grain of the British tradition against fanaticism. The reign of Cromwell with his martial brilliance and religious fanaticism was as alien to England as it was effective.
The first call for a such a small period is a micro-age with the Libra-Virgo micro-age (1642 – 1657) with both signs opposing Aries and Pisces that are supportive signs to the British Isles. However, this micro-age sits directly in the path of the Capricorn sub-age overflow (1612 – 1791) and Capricorn sub-age decan overflow (1612 – 1672). This invokes the polarizing Capricorn-Cancer dipole in Britain’s signature, though Cancer seems the dominant sign. Interestingly, the arrival of the following Leo micro-age (1657 – 1672) quickly witnessed the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The Commonwealth of England is merely perceived as the Interregnum by monarchists.
However, the forensic evidence suggests that within the Libra-Virgo micro-age (1642 – 1657) resides the Capricorn micro-age decan and overflow (1647 – 1657) which played a major role as this relatively small Capricorn period as it resonated from all the Capricorn overflow influences from the preceding Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612) giving this small Capricorn micro-age decan and overflow a stature way above its nominal size and strength. This period allegorically had a magnify glass held over it with the Capricorn light tightly focused like a laser beam on the years 1647 to 1657.
The purpose of this exploration of the UK’s astrological signature was for determining the astrological environment surrounding the UK’s entry into the European Union in 1973 and its supposed exit on 29 March 2019. This Brexit analysis will hopefully be available soon, but I can reveal that with Scorpio, Gemini, Cancer and Aquarius key players in Brexit, that this is another intense and undermining period for the UK. Furthermore, with Gemini and Aquarius extremely powerful for the rest of the 21st century, with both signs opposing the two core signs for the UK of Sagittarius and Leo, we should not expect the equivalent of a Sunday school picnic in the years ahead.
I do maintain an ad hoc database of countries with their supposed astrological signatures, and if I have the time, this article would be a chapter in a book, with a chapter for each of the most significant countries in the world. Interestingly, before researching the above, I had included Aries, Gemini, Cancer and Leo as part of the UK’s signature, and also allowed the possibility of Taurus and Capricorn. Gemini is no longer included, Taurus and Capricorn have been firmly entrenched, and Sagittarius has been added. This demonstrates that there is no substitute for exacting and detailed research and analysis if any astrological clarity is to be obtained, in this case, the standard qualitative research that fostered the creation of astrology, and its evolution of the last two thousand years.
Battle of Hastings as depicted by the Bayeux Tapestry Photo by
King Arthur by Charles Ernest Butler (1903)
Queen Boudica An engraving by William Sharp published in 1793, based on Boadicea Haranguing the Britons (called Boudicca, or Boadicea) by John Opie (died 1807).
Queen Elizabeth II Derivative of File:Queen Elizabeth II March 2015 by Joel Rouse (MoD).jpg
Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper based on a work of 1656
 Every age, age-decan, sub-age and so on ‘overflows’ upon the following period. For example the Taurus age (5122 BC – 2916 BC) is followed by the Aries age (2916 BC – 732 BC), but the influence of the momentum from the Taurus age upon the Aries age is actually stronger than the influence from the emergent Aries age. Therefore the Aries age and Taurus age overflow are the same period (2916 BC – 732 BC), and this can be expressed in another way. The combined Taurus age overflow and Aries age can be called the Taurus-Aries age. Based on the Age of Aquarius arriving in 1433 AD, the Age of Aquarius (1433 AD – 3574 AD) can be termed the Pisces-Aquarius age which better represents the situation in the age of Aquarius where Pisces is the more dominant sign, especially in the first half of the Age of Aquarius. The combined Taurus age (5122 BC – 2916 BC) and Taurus Age overflow (2916 BC – 732 BC) can also be called the Taurus era (5122 BC – 2916 BC).
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 The Darkest Hour, Wikipedia, Retrieved 02:43, January 12, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Darkest_Hour&oldid=876471092
 H. P. Dickinson, “Walpole, Sir Robert,” in David Loades, editor, Readers Guide to British History (2003) 2:1338
 Margaret Thatcher, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:02, January 13, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Margaret_Thatcher&oldid=877973665
 Rex E Bills, “The Rulership Book, Macoy Publishing, Virginia, 1976 p 144
 Wars of the Roses, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:41, January 13, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wars_of_the_Roses&oldid=877295557
 Commonwealth of England, Wikipedia, Retrieved 02:21, January 12, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commonwealth_of_England&oldid=877757161