Libra micro-age and overflow (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657)

This is a ‘full size’ 30 year Libra period being the Libra MA&OF (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657) and is the second of this size in the Libra age-decan (1433 – 2149). The most significant influence for this Libra period was dour old Capricorn, and its negative influence upon gay Libra is readily identifiable in many of the historical events of this period – especially the absence of notable women.  This Libra period fell under the shadow of the Capricorn sub-age overflow (1612 – 1791).

As to be expected, some major conflicts affected this Libra period and the major conflict of note is the British Civil Wars (1639 – 1653) and therefore closely shadowing the Libra MA&OF (1627 – 1657).  The wars included rebellions, civil wars and invasions with the most important being the English Civil War which ended when the English parliamentarian army won followed by the execution of the king, the abolition of the monarchy, and the founding of the Commonwealth of England which lasted until 1660 – only a few years past the end of this Libra period. [1] No English king had ever been previously executed.  The English Civil War, similar to the American Civil War, was a major event in the history of the UK.  Family was against family, and in all regions of Great Britain, the population was fairly evenly split in their loyalties to the crown or parliament.

Some historians claim that this civil war was the result of the arrival of the Renaissance into England which changed the balance of power, but governments tend to lag behind such changes at their peril.  The Puritans played a decisive role, and the Puritans were energized Protestants, and Protestants do represent the arrival of the Age of Aquarius into Europe as many of Protestant features invoke Aquarius such as anti the pope (anti the magnificent Leo leader), and the fact that the Protestant cults usually had strong democratic features as opposed to the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic Church modelled after the government of Ancient Rome. 

Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) was the head of state (Lord Protector) under the new commonwealth.  However his approach quickly fell out of favor after his death and his corpse was subsequently dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in British and Irish history, considered a regicidal dictator by some, and a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a class revolutionary by Leon Trotsky, and a hero of liberty by John Milton.  Cromwell was a Puritan who used his political power to actively promote the suppression of vice and encouraged virtue.[2]  Cromwell’s main generational sign was Aquarius, and his more fine-tuned generation was an Aquarius-Capricorn generation with Aquarius providing the revolutionary spirit and Capricorn the conservative Puritanism.

People today just do not understand the excitement unleashed by the Protestant revolution and arrival of the Age of Science early in the Age of Aquarius.  These excited people were able to seize the government of England for a while, and stamp out the monarchy like it was a cigarette which provided the first Aquarius revolution in the new age.  However, Aquarius is always detrimental to the UK as the UK has Leo high in its astrological signature.  It did not take long for the monarchy to return and Aquarius’ revolutionary zeal headed to North America!

A number of developments occurred due to the English Civil War with close ties to Libra.  In 1641 English law made witchcraft a capital crime (Capricorn and Libra) and a few years later in 1644 the first witch-hunter made his career in the eastern counties of England. In 1642 the English Parliament ordered the closure of all theatres in London, effectively ending the era of English Renaissance theatre established in the previous Libra period and followed by the banning of all stage plays in theatres anywhere in the country due to the stern approach to life adopted by the Puritans.  The Taliban, ISIS and ISIL were merely following in the footsteps of European fascism from earlier centuries.

Libra the balance may have archetypally influenced the appearance of the Levellers, a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651) with (Libra) justice strongly represented in its manifesto – popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law and religious tolerance. The hallmark of Leveller philosophy was its emphasis on equal natural rights.  They were not the only ones going down this path.

The Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers was formed in 1648 from ‘divine insight’ and as a Protestant Christian cult, its relevance to this Libra period is its opposition to (Aries) war and elevation of women.  In the 1650s, individual Quaker women prophesied and preached publicly, developed charismatic personae and spread the word. This practice was bolstered by the movement’s firm concept of spiritual equality for men and women. Thus the Quakers were unwittingly in service to Libra (and the spirit of Aquarius).  Interestingly, early Quakers disliked paganism so they refused to use the usual names of the days of the week, since they were derived from the names of pagan deities (planetary gods) and they refused to celebrate Christmas because they believed it was based on pagan festivities – which is true as the early Christian church borrowed Saturnalia from the Romans and rebadged it as Christmas (the general consensus of historians is that Jesus was not born in December).[3]  Only a few years past this Libra period in 1662 Quakers were persecuted for a time in the UK and American persecution commenced in 1656, only a year before the end of this Libra period, and four Quakers were actually hanged in 1660 in Boston.[4]

Libra’s connection to jurisprudence is again clearly demonstrated with the publication of a series of legal treatises The Institutes of the Lawes of England which were written and published between 1628 and 1644. Widely recognized as a foundational document for English common law, they have been cited in over 70 cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States, including several landmark cases including Roe v. Wade (1973), where The Institutes were cited as evidence that under old English common law, an abortion performed before quickening was not an indictable offence. An earlier case in 1895 referred to The Institutes for their definition of monopolies.[5]

The publication in 1644 of Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parlament of England by the English poet John Milton who strongly opposed censorship is amongst history’s most influential and impassioned philosophical defenses of the principle of a right to freedom of speech and expression. Many of its expressed principles have formed the basis for modern justifications.  Milton has been acclaimed as the “greatest English author”, and he is regarded “as one of the preeminent writers in the English language”. John Milton also promoted the legitimacy of divorce publishing The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce in 1643 which was considered heretical at the time.  Libra’s quest for justice is again displayed.

Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) was an English philosopher who is considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. He is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, in which he expounds an influential formulation of social contract theory.  Social contract definitely has a Libran tinge and the main argument is that individuals have consented, one way or another, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority (of the ruler, or to the decision of a majority) in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order. Hobbes was an early exponent of this balanced argument.[6]

Colonial America contributed to Libra even at this extremely early stage. In 1628 Puritans settled Salem, which later became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.  In 1629 around 350 English Puritans sailed from England to Salem, to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony which was granted a Royal Charter in the following year and it became a self-governing entity.  The following year brought another 700 passengers including Anne Bradstreet, America’s first poet of significance and who in 1646, became a founding mother of Andover Parish (modern-day North Andover), Massachusetts.

1630 saw the settling of Boston and a group of emigrants arrived at Southampton Hundred, on the James River in Virginia.  The first governor was appointed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1631 with the first English settlement in Maryland and in the following year Charles I of England issued a charter for the colony of Maryland.  Also in 1631, the Dutch West India Company started a settlement of the Delaware River.   In 1634 a group from the Plymouth Colony settled in Windsor, Connecticut, making it the first settlement in the state.  In 1635 Roger Williams (theologian) founded Rhode Island. And such was the rush to the colonies, in 1637 King Charles I of England issued a proclamation, attempting to stem emigration to the North American colonies.

In 1637 Elizabeth Poole became the first woman to found a town in the Americas – Taunton, Massachusetts.  In the following year, Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy, and moved to Rhode Island.  In 1643 the New England Confederation (also known as the United Colonies of New England) was formed as a military alliance comprising the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Saybrook (Connecticut), and New Haven. Its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies in support of the church, and for defense against the American Indians and the Dutch colony of New Netherland. It was the first milestone on the long road to colonial unity.  Interestingly, even at this early stage, the nascent American psyche was on display as John Quincy Adams remarked two centuries later:

“Its history, like that of other confederacies, presents a record of incessant discord – of encroachments by the most powerful party upon the weaker members, and of disregard, by all the separate members, of the conclusions adopted by the whole body. Still the main purpose of the union was accomplished.”[7]

The Pisces American psyche is aptly demonstrated in the above statement.

In 1652, Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.[8]  In 1655 John Casor, became the first legally recognized slave, as a result of a civil case.  He was the first person of African descent in the Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life.  His master was perversely a freed African-American and the Virginian court sustained the right of free blacks to own slaves.  Laws racializing slavery hardened during Casor’s lifetime and after this Libra period in 1662, the Virginia Colony made a ruling that children of enslaved mothers would be born into slavery, regardless of their father’s race or status. This was in contradiction to English common law for English subjects, which based a child’s status on that of their father.[9] However, this does shift the emphasis to Libra even if it is perverse!

One of the earliest voices for modern democratic ideals in the USA was pioneered by Roger Williams (1603 – 1683), the founder of what would become the Colony of Rhode Island.  Though he was a Puritan minister, he was also a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, and fair dealings with Native Americans, and he was one of the first abolitionists as he organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of England’s North American colonies. His views were far too liberal for the conservative Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay authorities and in 1635, he was convicted of sedition and heresy. They declared that he was spreading “diverse, new, and dangerous opinions”.  He was considered an important historical figure of religious liberty at the time of American independence, and he was a key influence on the thinking of the Founding Fathers.[10]  Even at this early formative time, with Roger Williams we see the divergence of American culture between modern and medieval in line with Pisces, represented by two fish swimming in opposite directions.  Pisces is the number one sign for the USA and this Pisces-divergent culture remains in place and recently demonstrated by the presidency of Donald Trump.

The discovery of Tasmania (an island south of the Australian mainland) and New Zealand in 1642 by Abel Tasman (1603 – 1659) followed by the charting of northern and western Australia (New Holland) two years later suggests a Libra connection to Australia and New Zealand especially as these voyages occurred at the pinnacle of this Libra period.

China was also a major focus within this Libra period. In 1627 the Manchus took advantage of Korea’s war-weakened state due to the unsuccessful Japanese invasion in the previous Libra period and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and this was even before the Manchus had taken over China.  In 1637 a Chinese encyclopedist published Exploitation of the Works of Nature which is considered one of the most valuable encyclopedias of classical China.  In 1641 a massive epidemic struck in northern and central China with some local areas and towns having 90% of the local populace wiped out, which may have contributed to the fall of the Ming Dynasty just three years later. In 1644 the invading Qing army captured Beijing marking the beginning of Manchu rule over China proper.  The Ming dynasty had ruled over China from 1368 to 1644 while the Qing dynasty survived until 1912 (also in a Libra period).  This major and highly significant political development in China supports a close connection between Libra and China.  However, the 1368 commencement of the Qing dynasty occurred in a Cancer sub-age decan (1314 – 1373) and Cancer appears to be the most powerful sign associated with China. 

On the artistic level, in 1642, Rembrandt finished his painting, The Night Watch – the most substantial of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period.  In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt’s paintings gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes. In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.  Libra’s rulership of parks and gardens is coming into play! 

Rubens’s (1557 – 1640) later period coincided with the first part of this Libra period.  He is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens’s diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring (Libra) peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. Rubens was knighted by Charles I of England in 1630. In 1628 He began a renewed study of Titian’s paintings, copying numerous works.  By 1629 he completed one of his most important works – the Allegory of Peace and War which illustrates the artist’s lively concern for peace. His international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, and one prominent example was The Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of Antwerp. In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife, 53-year-old Rubens married his deceased wife’s 16-year-old niece, who inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus, The Three Graces and The Judgement of Paris with his wife the model for various depictions of Venus including sculptures.[11]   

Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599 – 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in his homeland and Italy.  He is best known for his portraits of the aristocracy, most notably Charles I (before he was beheaded), and his family and associates. Van Dyck became the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years.  King Charles I was the keenest collector of art among the Stuart kings, and saw painting as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy (this was the time of Capricorn). In 1628, just inside this Libra period, he purchased the fabulous collection that the Duke of Mantua was forced to sell.  Van Dyck remained in contact with the English court and helped King Charles’s search for paintings.  In England he developed a version of his style which combined a relaxed elegance and ease with an understated authority in his subjects which was to dominate English portrait-painting to the end of the 18th century. Many of these portraits have a lush (Libran) landscape background.[12]

Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) was an Italian musician and priest who composed both secular and sacred music, and was a pioneer in the development of opera – he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history.  This Libra period mainly coincided with Monteverdi’s late flowering period (1637 – 1643) commencing with the opening of the first public opera house in Europe at San Cassiano in 1637, which stimulated the city’s musical life and coincided with a new burst of the composer’s activity.  By 1656, the first opera house opened in London. Monteverdi’s contribution to opera at this period is notable and is credited for the rebirth of theatrical music and that “he will be sighed for in later ages, for his compositions will surely outlive the ravages of time.”[13] Monteverdi’s drive may have come from the fact he was born of an Aries-Aries or Aries-Pisces generation.

Molière (a stage name) (1621/2 – 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and world literature. He turned to acting in 1643 only one year past the peak of this Libra period.  His extant works include comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more often than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language is often referred to as the “language of Molière”. Despite his own preference for tragedy, Molière became famous for his farces. He began to write full, five-act comedies in verse in 1654 [14] towards the end of this Libra period which he outlived.  His attraction to farce may be explained by the fact he was born in a Scorpio-Scorpio generation and his troupe did go bankrupt at one stage.

Though highly notable females seem absent in this period, an abstract focus did prevail.  In 1629 a Chinese emperor of the Ming dynasty reiterated the state prohibition against female infanticide.  However, as perhaps an example of oriental yin yang, the same year actresses were banned from the stage in Japan. 

In 1631, the death in childbirth of the Mughal emperor’s wife caused the emperor to commission the Taj Mahal at Agra, as a mausoleum for her. Constructed from 1632 to 1653 – it also became the emperor’s tomb (at a cost of about $US956 million in today’s money).  The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage” and it was declared a winner of the New 7 Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.[15]  It could be dedicated to Libra both as a work of art and beauty plus an expression of love in marriage!

One of the 7 wonders of world and one of the major tourist attraction of India. Agra is synonymous with that monument of love, which is the stunning Taj Mahal and it is surrounded by beautiful lush green gardens and a river in backward Yamuna.By Kristian Bertel – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

The elevation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Queen of Genoa in 1637 is again in the Libra camp. And finally, Libra’s ruling planet Venus gets some attention in 1639 when the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks made the first successful prediction and observation of a transit of Venus.

Cafes breed (Libra) socializing, and the appearance of cafes in Europe coincided with this Libra period with the first café in Europe opened in Venice in 1640.  Coffee drinking became popular in Paris by 1643 and England saw its first coffeehouse open in 1651 and such were their popularity, by 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England.

Finally, Libra’s connection to all things beautiful naturally must include flowers, and so it is fitting that in 1637 saw the collapse of Tulip mania in the Dutch Republic. At the peak of tulip mania, in February 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the annual income of a skilled crafts worker. Another example suggests that one tulip bulb was bartered for 12 acres (5 hectares) of land.  It is believed to have been the first recorded speculative bubble and bust in history but it did not create an economic crisis for the Dutch Republic, which at the time was the world’s leading economic and financial power.[16]

Finally, the 1656 invention of the pendulum clock by Christiaan Huygens is interesting because 1656 is heavily influenced by the Capricorn sub-age overflow, Capricorn sub-age decan overflow as well as the Capricorn quasi sub-age – in other words, Capricorn the sign of time and clocks, was incredibly strong when the pendulum clock was invented.  However, the swing motion of the pendulum invokes Libra!  Pendulum clocks were the most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use until the 1930s and 40s when they were overshadowed by less-expensive, synchronous, electric clocks[17] in the Capricorn micro-age and overflow (1925 – 1940 – 1955).  In my youth I can remember when I stayed at my grandparents’ house, I used to go to sleep every night listening to the half hour and hour chimes of their mantelpiece pendulum clock which they wound up every day.

The most notable aspect of this Libra MA&OF (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657) is the lack of notable women.  There would have been some notable women that fail to register with us today, but there is a plausible astrological reason why highly placed notable women are largely absent in this larger than average Libra period.  The following list displays the Libra periods since the start of the Age of Aquarius in 1433 that have been investigated to date in this Libra series:

Pisces-Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612)

  • Libra micro-age and overflow (March 1463 – March 1478 – March 1493)
  • Libra micro-age decan and overflow (December 1527 – November 1537)
  • Libra micro-age decan and overflow (August 1582 – July 1592)

Capricorn-Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791)

  • Libra micro-age and overflow (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657)

With the first three Libra periods located in Pisces-Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612), Pisces overshadows Capricorn.  The current Libra period however is located in the Capricorn- Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791) where Capricorn is the major player.  The current Libra period is the first in the Capricorn-Sagittarius sub-age overflow and is buffeted by the strongest Capricorn influence of all the Libra periods investigated to date.  Capricorn is naturally anti-feminine due to Cancer being the opposite sign to Capricorn – and Cancer shares with Libra a strong association to females.  Furthermore, the first sub-age decan in the Capricorn- Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791) is the Leo sub-age decan (1612 – 1672) and Leo is male-orientated. Naturally, the darkness of Capricorn did not limit the accusation of witchcraft against women, if anything, it magnified this horror.

The major conflict of note was the English Civil War resulting in the execution of the king and the establishment of a commonwealth in England that also banned anything frivolous or fun, as Capricorn promotes a stern authoritarian lifestyle.  This is why all theatres were closed in London in 1642.  Nevertheless Libra inspires justice, and this can be seen with the Levellers promoting modern liberal ideals – well ahead of their time.  The Quakers also promoted equality of the sexes.  The publication of The Institutes of the Lawes of England clarified many aspects of English common law that spread to the USA and other countries.  Other legal perspectives from John Milton and Thomas Hobbes pushed the boundaries of English medieval laws towards modernity.

This Libra period saw great activity in North America, especially New England or what would become the hub of the northern states in the USA and suggests that in Pisces USA, one of the fish has strong Libran qualities of justice and equality.  These new settlements include: Salem, Boston, Maryland, Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island.  The creation of the United Colonies of New England was a forerunner for the creation of the revolution USA.  The seeds of the American Civil War were put in place in this Libra period when Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.

The first extensive European exploration of Australia and New Zealand in this period also suggests that inclusion of Libra into the astrological signatures for these countries (and Canada whose name was coined in the previous Libra period) provided future Libra periods confirm this assessment.

China had an exceptional development with the fall the Ming dynasty replaced by the Manchu dynasty in 1644.  The publication of the Exploitation of the Works of Nature in 1637 provides an invaluable insight into the Chinese world of this period. However, before the Ming collapsed they did reiterate the state prohibition against female infanticide

Probably the most notable development in this period was on the artistic side.  This Libra period captured key periods in the life of extremely famous artists and musicians such as Rembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck, Monteverdi, and Molière with Rubens the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition and Van Dyck dictating portraiture for the next 150 years. Monteverdi virtually created opera and Molière as one of the greatest writers in the French language and world literature.

Appropriately one of the most famous marriages in history occurred in this Libra period with the death in India of the Mughal emperor’s wife and his construction of one of the most beautiful buildings in the world – the Taj Mahal.  As a temple (ceremonial structure), ruled by Capricorn, it is better known than his wife to whom the temple is dedicated. Though this period is bereft of famous females, the elevation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Queen of Genoa in 1637 does make an attempt.  Venus (the ruler of Libra) gets a focus when the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks made the first successful prediction and observation of a transit of Venus

Coffee promotes (Libra) social interaction and coffee made its move in this Libra period with the first European café in 1640. Libra’s association with flowers does see its manifestation with the boom of the tulip market in the Dutch Republic, followed by its bust and setting the precedent for economic cycles over the following centuries including the 21st century.  Finally the invention in 1656 of the pendulum clock aligned with Capricorn, the ruler of time, is a fitting end to this review.

Previous Libra periods Examined:

Libra micro-age decan and overflow (Aug 1582 – Jul 1592)

Libra micro-age decan and overflow (Dec 1527 – Nov 1537)

Libra micro-age and overflow (Mar 1463 – Mar 1493)


[1] Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:55, January 21, 2021, from

[2] Oliver Cromwell, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:45, February 25, 2021, from

[3] Date of birth of Jesus, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:11, March 6, 2021, from

[4] Quakers, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:30, February 24, 2021, from

[5] Institutes of the Lawes of England, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:17, January 29, 2021, from

[6] Thomas Hobbes, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:34, February 23, 2021, from

[7]Quincy Adams, John, ed. (1843). The New England Confederacy A Discourse delivered before the Massachusetts Historical Society, at Boston, on the 29th of May 1843; In Celebration of the Second Centennial of that Event. Charles C. Little and James Brown.

[8]“Time and Place”, . Slavery and the Making of America. Thirteen. 2004. Retrieved 2018-02-24. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years.

[9] John Casor, Wikipedia, Retrieved 05:26, January 29, 2021, from

[10] Roger Williams, Wikipedia, Retrieved 03:08, February 24, 2021, from

[11] Peter Paul Rubens, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:19, February 23, 2021, from

[12] Anthony van Dyck, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:50, February 23, 2021, from

[13] Claudio Monteverdi, Wikipedia,  Retrieved 07:12, February 23, 2021, from

[14] Molière, Wikipedia, Retrieved 07:28, February 23, 2021, from

[15] Taj Mahal, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:34, January 29, 2021, from

[16] Tulip mania, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:43, January 29, 2021, from

[17] Pendulum clock, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:53, February 24, 2021, from

A Funny Thing Happened in the 21st Century – Part 2

The current 21st century from an astrological perspective is a ‘mild’ century.  In Part 1, an initial examination of the 21st century was made which proposed that the 21st century is not as dangerous compared to the 20th and 22nd centuries due primarily to the fact that both these centuries have a major sub-age cusp whereas the 21st century does not.  The primary influence in the 21st century is from the Scorpio sub-age overflow (1970-2148) and a basic examination of Scorpio archetypes was undertaken.  Sub-age cusps are not the only harbingers of disasters and difficulties, and in this post, a deeper examination of the differences between the current 21st century compared to the two adjoining centuries is made.

For those readers not familiar with periods used in macro-astrology, you may find your understanding significantly increases if you first read Age of Aquarius for Dummies

The 20th century saw both the peak of the Scorpio sub-age wave in 1970 and the peak of the Pisces sub-age decan (the middle decan of the Scorpio sub-age) wave in 1910.  Normally a wave associated with a sub-age decan should have only one-third the strength of a sub-age wave – but like the inevitability of Murphy’s Law, there is always an exception.  The peak of the Pisces sub-age decan wave in 1910 was the exception to the rule.  The greatest wave of all is caused by an age, and that last rolled in on an unsuspecting world in the 15th century.  The age cusp in the 15th century marked the boundary of the Pisces and Aquarian ages, but in the 15th century Pisces is the sign of strength while Aquarius is just the new spindly kid on the block.

In the 15th century, the Pisces age broke like a tsunami and is currently washing over the world for thousands of years bringing all manner of Pisces archetypes along for the ride.  Pisces is traditionally associated with Europe, is the primary sign on the USA’s totem pole, is the sign for corporations (fake bodies) and thus strongly linked to capitalism, and is the apocalyptic sign which is why key Pisces religions such as Christianity and Islam look to the end of the world for salvation.  Even many science fiction and futuristic movies often portray a post-apocalyptic future.  Pisces is the sign of endings, and many people are convinced about the imminent and messy end of human society or society as we know it.

Coincidentally Pisces archetypes include self-deception, delusion and a lack of clarity. Under Pisces’ spell, when Pisces was at its peak the Roman Catholic Church (and the new Protestantism) behaved like the Taliban or ISIS and burnt at the stake many people, exiled or persecuted them by other means due only to their beliefs.  There were massive religious wars between the Protestant and Catholic nations (similar to the Sunni and Shiite antagonism currently playing out in the Middle East).  The Black Death ravaged Europe.  The majority of the American Indians were killed by disease upon contact with their European superiors, if they had not already been murdered or enslaved.  Millions of innocent Africans were transported to become slaves with many millions dying a horrible death on route.  It was not a pretty picture.  There were many developments on the positive side of Pisces at this critical juncture but at this point, I am looking for worse case scenarios.

When the tsunami of the Pisces age wave passes over the centuries, if it comes across a significant Pisces sub-period it resonates with the smaller Pisces period creating, for a short time, a far greater impact than can normally be expected from a smaller wave.  When the Pisces age wave hit the early 20th century, it resonated with the smaller Pisces sub-age decan wave and reminded the world of what it was like to live under medieval Pisces in earlier centuries.  This is why in the first half of the 20th century the world saw two World Wars, the Great Depression and the millions of deaths associated with the Spanish flu in 1918 which killed more people than the First World War.  How many hundreds of millions of people were cut down before their time in the first half of the 20th century? Again, I am focusing on the dark side of Pisces only. The first half of the 20th century was the great disaster of modern times, and there is nothing remotely like it indicated in the current 21st century.

On the other side of the 21st century, the 22nd century has something that only appears once every age.  Each age has three age-decans.  The cusp of one age decan coincides with the cusp of the ages so can be discounted, leaving the two remaining cusps.  The first of these two age-decan cusps takes on additional role.  The first age-decan cusp of any age is of the opposite sign of the second last age overflow and stops it in its tracks!  The whole of the Pisces age (732 BC – 1433 AD) was dominated by the Aries age overflow in the same way that the current Aquarius age (1433 – 3574) is dominated by the Pisces age overflow. However when the 15th century arrived unleashing the Pisces age-overflow, the remnants of the Aries age overflow continued to be carried along in the slipstream.  Aries brought the Age of Warfare and the continuation of the military madness associated with Aries has carried forward into the modern world – but it has a time fuse attached to it.

War is not the only archetype attached to Aries, it is the sign of male-dominated society and sits high on the European totem pole along with Pisces in contrast with the Far East which has a focus upon Libra.  Aries has driven the constructive urge in the world where nearly everywhere in the world has numerous examples of spectacular engineering feats.  Somehow, all this comes to a screeching halt from the middle of the 22nd century onwards because of the peak of the Libra age decan in 2148 – with Libra countering Aries’ archetypes.  Furthermore, age-decan cusps produce serious schisms, and the strength of an age decan cusp is such that even the constitutional integrity of the US government will most likely be compromised (for a short time) before political continuity returns.  Major empires and regions have a history of collapsing upon the arrival of an age-decan cusp.  Age-decan cusps are serious business.  Nothing like this is seen in the current 21st century.

Before examining the 21st century in detail, it is important to reiterate what has been investigated so far.  The current 21st century, for all its problems, will in no way be comparable to the extreme destruction witnessed in the first half of the 20th century nor what is projected to occur in the 22nd century.  The mood however for the 21st century will be desultory and people will feel vulnerable – some will feel very vengeful. A new ethos will grow and develop over the century which can be sourced back to the 1960s and 70s.  This has precedence and previous incarnations of this same phenomena occurred with the rise of the workers commencing the early 19th century, and the earlier rise of the bourgeoisie (self-employed businessmen). Prior to that there was the sudden appearance of the Puritans and Protestant Christians.  In each case, these movements were associated with sub-ages – the Puritans with the Capricorn sub-age, the bourgeoisie with the Sagittarius sub-age and the workers with the Scorpio sub-age.  In all cases there were long germinations times.

Figure 1 – the first four subages of the Aquarian age
Each of these sub-ages of the Aquarian age have produced a major new socio-political movement

What is the new movement or ethos emanating out of the current Libra sub-age (1970 – 2148)?  It is the New Age movement, and the growth of this new environmentally-friendly social ethos is sure to follow the same pattern.  We will not experience its culmination in this century.

The two key aspects that need to be examined for a top-down view of the 21st century are the influences from the Scorpio sub-age overflow and the newly arrived Libra sub-age (both 1970-2148 and this period can be labelled the Scorpio-Libra sub-age) plus the role of the two sub-age decans cusps that occur in the 21st century.  Because of the wave-like nature of all periods in macro-astrology, no period is solely influenced by only one sign.  The Scorpio sub-age overflow and Libra sub-age are occurring simultaneously as the Scorpio wave has attained its peak ascendancy in 1970 and ‘breaks’ over the following period while in 1970 the Libra sub-age comes online ready for its 179 years climb to its peak.  Abbreviating the period to the Scorpio-Libra sub-age indicates the role of the two signs in this period and the dominance of Scorpio of Libra in the timeframe.

The Scorpio-Libra sub-age (1970-2148) has a demarcation line around the year 2059.  Before 2059 Scorpio is the absolute dominant sign in the partnership, but from around 2059 Libra becomes noticeably more powerful.  The input from Scorpio has already been covered in brief, but there is more to Scorpio than regeneration.  The other key archetype associated with Scorpio is reduction including minimalism.  Scorpio likes to prune the tree.  All the predictions for the world population indicate a continuation of the exponential growth in the number of people in the world.  The population explosion was a direct result of the Sagittarius sub-age overflow (1791-1970) and few people will disagree with the association of a booming population with the sign Sagittarius.  However it is now Scorpio’s turn, and Scorpio is not expansionary like Sagittarius – in many ways it has an opposite quality.  Scorpio wants the population of the world to reduce!

How will the world’s population reduce when all the pundits predict the opposite?  Most people latch onto apocalyptic scenarios, but this melodramatic view of the future is associated with Pisces, and though Pisces is the primary sign in the world for many more centuries to come, there is no Pisces period of strength in the 21st century to resonate with.  The most it can do is prop up the Pisces micro-age and overflow (2059-2074-2089) where it is likely to create another economic bubble which will again crash spectacularly around 2092 to 2097.

The fall in population is already occurring but most people cannot see it.  Most western nations have had negative population growth for decades which means the number of children being born is less than the number of people dying.  The only reason western countries are not shrinking is due to immigration.  This population contraction is now not limited to only western nations, many second tier nations are witnessing the same.  Furthermore, as the spread of the middle class extends from developed nations to developing nations, population growth falls because middle class families do not need to depend upon their children for their social security and labor as they grow old.  Recently, for the first time in history, more people live in urban centers than in rural areas.  This is merely confirmation of the worldwide trend towards an urbanized middle class with greater wealth than their average rural counterpart, resulting in families with significantly less children.  In addition, China, with 1.3 billion people is the most populace nation on earth and had for many decades an enforced One-Child policy which has drastically affected population growth for a significant proportion of the world’s population.

It may be too unrealistic to suggest that all the population contraction will be based solely on economic issues – other mildly catastrophic events may reduce population growth, but if disease, epidemics, pollution, violence and so on become factors that prune the world’s population, it cannot be at the same echelon of disasters that befell the world in the first half of the 20th century.  One possible reason for population decline is due appropriately to growing rates of infertility – infertility is in the stable of Scorpio archetypes.  Infertility or difficulties for women to become pregnant has substantially increased in western nations since the 1960s.[i]  Infertility clinics are becoming as common as McDonalds.

The effects of the astrological ages and sub-periods are not uniform around the world but always radiate out from the age-empire or civilization focal point of the time.  Since the 15th century this has been the prerogative, for better and worse, of western culture – firstly in Europe, but during the powerful Pisces resonant point in the early 20th century, this was passed on to the USA.  The emergent developments will tend to occur first in western nations then radiate out to the rest of the world over the following decades or centuries.  The negative population growth of western nations has commenced radiating out past western nations, and though it may not hit Africa for over another century or more, it will ultimately get there.

The other big picture association to Scorpio is pollution.  Pollution will be a significant factor in world affairs at least until the early 23rd century.  When the world arrives at the peak of the Taurus sub-age decan[ii] around 2207, a counterbalancing period lasting many decades will reign in pollution or its effects one way or another.  There is no need to review the plethora of dire consequences that environmental scientists predict for the world except for one major aspect that I did briefly refer to in my book published in 2011.  Global Warming is real, and currently the heat is not going into atmospheric temperature but into rising oceanic temperature.  Apart from melting the ice at the poles, hot water expands.

“Can any insight be gained from the astrological ages about the prediction by many scientists of a serious rise in ocean levels due to climate change? Pisces takes control of the oceans, and scientists are stating that the conclusions of the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are too optimistic and conservative. The average ocean levels rose about 17 cm in the twentieth century. Most people are aware that the melting of glaciers and ice sheets is contributing significantly to sea level rise. However, global warming is also causing the existing seawater to expand, thus further increasing sea level rise. Based on the combination of meltwater from melting ice and expanding oceans, some experts believe ocean levels could rise by 1 meter by 2100 CE.” [iii]

The scientific evidence suggests that the sea level will rise around one meter (over 3 feet) per century for the next five centuries.  Since the 15th century the strongest sign in the world is Pisces and will remain Pisces at least until 2500 – therefore the astrology supports the scientists.  This will be an ongoing major catastrophe in slow motion and satisfies the requirement of our current century that detrimental change is here, but not to the destructive level of the early 20th century.  Recently I was discussing the issue with a university lecturer in marine biology and he stated that the effects of an average sea level rise of just one inch can push back the shoreline by 20 yards or more.  Most of the world’s coastal cities are doomed, but not immediately – how long can Venice survive?

In conclusion, both the 20th and 22nd centuries have major astrological precipitators creating extreme situations due to the Pisces sub-age decan resonating with the Pisces age overflow in the early 20th century, and the Libra age-decan cusp in the 22nd century opposing the violent influence carrying over from the Aries age. The funny thing is that nothing on this level occurs in the current 21st century.Peace_sign

Each sub-age produces a sub-culture with a new ethos, and I have proposed that the new and emergent sub-culture that will be in a position to deal with the world’s problems will evolve from the New Age movement and Green sympathizers.   The population explosion is not only likely to continue to considerably slow down, it may even start reducing the world population as the 21st century unwinds, unless this is totally reserved for the 22nd century.  Ages and all sub-periods ‘radiate’ and at this stage of the Age of Aquarius, it is western culture that is the source of the radiation, and its radiating influence will slowly but steadily affect the rest of the world for better or worse (torturing prisoners or highly questionable interrogation tactics such as waterboarding will also radiate out to the rest of the world).  On the other extreme is the Peace or New Age movement which was developed within western culture.

Finally pollution will increasingly become the issue that must be resolved and the second half of the 21st century looks promising in this regard.  The astrology suggests that the current ethos of western culture is incapable of adequately addressing the major issue of pollution due to the overriding focus upon financial profit, and that it will only be due to the growing influence of the New Age/Green movement, or whatever emerges from this movement, that will sufficiently address the problem – possibly as early as 2059 or shortly thereafter.  The drive towards addressing pollution and Climate Change will build and develop in the period leading to 2059.



[ii] This Taurus sub-age decan belongs to the Virgo sub-age (c.2148-2327)

[iii] Terry MacKinnell “The Dawning”,Xlibris, 2011, p 237-8

Associated Posts

A Funny Thing Happened in the 21st Century – Part 1

Will New Agers Rule the World

Scorpio – the Sign of the Times


Further resources from Terry MacKinnell – details of purchasing the book available

The Age of Aquarius for Dummies – explains the structure and sub-periods associated with the astrological ages

Aquarian Age Economics – Examines the relationship between macro-astrology and financial cycles

At the Cutting Edge of the Aquarian Age – Cutting edge research into the astrological ages for astrologers

FaceBook – keep up to date with what is happening

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“The Dawning” is available from Xlibris, Amazon etc
Detailed examination of the astrological ages from the Age of Leo to the Age of Aquarius including age-decans


Falling Crime Rate Surprises Everyone

Why did violent crime peak around 1991 in the USA, Canada and elsewhere then commence to significantly reduce?  In a New York Times article it was reported that the aggregation of all violent crime in the USA significantly peaked in 1991:

Perhaps nowhere has the drop been more stunning than in New York City, which reported only 328 homicides for 2014, compared with 2,245 in 1990.

There was not only a fall in serious crime, there was also declines in teenage pregnancy, child abuse and juvenile delinquency. [1]

Coincidentally, I only discovered the most likely reason for the falling crime rate from watching Catalyst, an Australian TV program, in an episode called Lead Astray[2] which included the following:

“New York today is a very different city to the one it was 20 years ago. For one thing, it’s considered to be much safer. There’s been a big drop in violent crime since the 1990s…. ..but oddly enough, as the rate of violent crime plunged in New York, it also plummeted in Los Angeles, Atlanta, Chicago, in fact, all over the United States and in many other countries.”


“Although it’s just a correlation, studies of individuals also show high childhood lead exposure increases the likelihood of a life marked by crime.”

Not only is there a correlation, the correlation between crime levels and lead levels has a 22 years delay, so that the peak in crime in 1991 is 22 years after the peak in lead pollution around 1969.  1969 is an extremely interesting date because the peak of the 357 years Scorpio sub-age and overflow (1791-1970-2148) is 1970. [For details of the mechanics and terminology used in macro-astrology – refer to The Age of Aquarius for Dummies]

In the same way that Scorpio indicates the excretory organs for a person, in a worldwide perspective, Scorpio rules the excrement of the world – especially pollution. The astrology supports the assertion that the crime wave peak in 1991 correlates to the lead pollution levels in the late 1960s.

“Perhaps the biggest crime associated with lead is that it was known to have serious toxic effects long before it was added to petrol.”

The history of the use of lead as a fuel additive has a direct correlation to Capricorn, the traditional ruler of lead.  In 1924, the year before the start of the 30 year Capricorn micro-age and overflow (1925-40-55), 17 workers died from lead poisoning in Standard and DuPont refineries in New Jersey.  This was so controversial at the time that it resulted in a one year moratorium on the addition of lead additives to gasoline (petrol) commencing in 1925, while an inquiry was under way.  This inquiry and subsequent research were hijacked by the lead industry.  The late 1920’s research by Robert A. Kehoe of the University of Cincinnati concluded that lead had no adverse health benefits – and this corrupt assessment held sway until the 1960s.  When an independent researcher discovered in 1943 that children with lead poisoning developed behavioral problems, he was threatened with a lawsuit and the research ceased. It took almost 40 years to discredit Kehoe and in the 1970s, the US government finally commenced phasing out lead in gasoline.  The lead industry then shifted their marketing to developing countries and actively lobbied these governments against phasing out of lead in gasoline.[3]  This unethical practice by global corporations has been mimicked by numerous other industries once they get banned or limited in First World countries.

Finally, it was during the Leo quasi micro-age (December 1993-July 2007), that nearly all countries passed laws to stop adding lead to gasoline – only Germany and Austria pre-empted this period but they still enacted laws in the first part of the Leo micro-age. Leo represents the 8th house of death to Capricorn lead!

How many peoples’ lives have been ruined by lead? Very small exposure to lead seriously restricts the mental development of a child as they evolve into adults.  Does this carelessness (to the point of criminality) of adding lead to gasoline apply to anything else?  Are harmful residues of plastics, industrial chemicals, pesticides and so on having deleterious effects upon the general public?  The astrology strongly supports this assertion plus there is the legendary unethical behavior of major corporations that are only focused upon their revenue like a drug pusher selling ice.

The strongest period for the Scorpio sub-age and overflow is the third quarter of its cycle – specifically the period 1970 to 2059.  This is the period that Scorpio runs amok like a freight train out of control. Unfortunately, lead continues to be used widely in the world in a variety of situations other than a fuel additive.  In addition, Iraq continues to add lead to petrol and other countries following the same practice are: Afghanistan, Burma (‘Myanmar’), North Korea, Algeria and Yemen.[4]

As a result of the rapidly increasing crime rates in the 1980s, the USA enacted draconian laws including expanding the death penalty, spent billions of dollars extra in law enforcement and built more prisons.  The USA now imprisons more of its population than any other country in the world.

The USA imprisons more people and a greater percentage of its population than any other country
Prisoner population rate per 100,000 population by country

What is the astrological reason behind the plummeting crime rates?  From the astrological perspective, 1991 as the peak date for crime occurred in a Leo micro-age (1985-2000) in an Aries quasi micro-age decan (Sep 1987 – Sep 1992).  If anything, this Aries should promote excess violent behavior and it did!  However the Leo micro-age (1985-2000) is the same period as the Virgo micro-age overflow. What has prisons got to do with Virgo when Virgo’s opposite sign, Pisces, rules prisons?  Virgo sits at the 7th house position to Pisces and the 7th house indicates detraction or attack.  In this case, prisons archetypally went on the attack capturing more and more of the general public and placing them in prisons like some giant one cell amoeba devouring its victims as depicted in  horror movies I saw when a kid in California.

From a statistical perspective, it is very possible that in the USA, a significant percentage of crimes and prison inmates were probably due to excessive childhood exposure to lead levels, especially prevalent in inner city and former industrial areas.  However reality is finally catching up, and some lawmakers are re-examining the costly crime control infrastructure to bring it back in line with the current much lower crime levels but Republicans are recalcitrant, and with Republicans controlling both houses of Congress, don’t hold your breath.  Canada never enforced draconian legal enforcement measures like the USA but its crime wave has also plummeted as with much of the world.

Why the heavy-handed response from the USA? The USA has Capricorn high on its totem pole, probably situated in third place after Pisces then Aquarius.  Capricorn is hard-headed and lacking emotional warmth or connection.  Certainly the USA’s response to the spiraling crime wave of the 1980’s was a hard-headed response compared to most of the rest of the world.  This Capricorn explains why amongst First World Nations, the USA appears to have the most backward and conservative policies in many areas.  On the other side of the equation, the Capricorn archetype that the Puritans brought with them to the USA (mainly in the Capricorn sub-age overflow 1612-1791) also gave them a self-reliant nature with a determination to get ahead in the world – something the USA has certainly accomplished in only a matter of a few centuries. However with Pisces at the top of the USA’s totem pole, it is also prudent to view the USA as if it is bi-polar – a land of extremes.

The perception of most people in the world is that everything is getting worse, especially crime but this is not backed up by any facts.  There is a noticeable gap between perception and reality by the general public.  For example, when people were asked to rate the safety of 10 major cities in the USA, New York was rated the second most dangerous city, while Dallas and Houston were generally rated safe.  The actual crime rate in New York is half of Dallas or Houston.  This pessimistic outlook that appeared somewhere a few decades ago is in line with the Scorpio sub-age overflow (1970-2148).  Under Scorpio, people feel vulnerable and insecure.  The previous sub-age influence was from Sagittarius, and despite two world wars and tens of millions of people killed due to war, violence and pogroms etc., people in western nations felt optimistic.  Sagittarius is an optimistic sign and Scorpio is the sign of insecurity.  What has occurred in line with falling crime rates is more intense reporting of crime increasing the feeling of vulnerability by most people.

The New York Times does briefly mention the possible connection between crime rates and lead pollution but scientists do not accept statistical correlation as proof.  This is why scientists reject astrology.  Even if astrologers can demonstrate statistical relationships, unless the underlying cause can be proved, Capricorn ruled hard-headed scientists will continue to reject astrology.

In summary, lead as an additive to gasoline was used prior to the Capricorn micro-age and overflow (1925-40-55) but during this Capricorn period, it became an entrenched commercial practice resulting in a culmination of lead pollution in 1969 – one year off the absolute peak of the Scorpio sub-age and overflow (1791-1970-2148).  The 22 year delay between lead levels and crime resulted in a crime peak in 1991 occurred in an Aries quasi micro-age decan (Sep 1987 – Sep 1992) with Aries always associated with violence.  Lawmakers in the USA became alarmed and introduced a series of draconian law enforcement measures resulting in a burgeoning prison population in a period ruled by Pisces opposite sign Virgo, in the Virgo micro-age (1985-2000).  Finally, in the Leo micro-age and overflow (1985-2000-2014), and even more specifically during the upper half of the bell-curve for Leo, the Leo quasi micro-age (December 1993-July 2007), nearly all countries passed laws to stop adding lead to gasoline – Leo represents the 8th house of death to Capricorn lead!


[1] Erik Eckholm, In a Safer Age, U.S. Rethinks Its ‘Tough on Crime’ System  New York Times, Jan 13, 2015,

[2] Catalyst Lead Astray,

[3] Tetraethyllead, Wikipedia, Retrieved February 16, 2015, from

[4] Anne Roberts, Six countries still use leaded petrol. Why?, LEAD Action News vol 11 Number 4, June 2011, ISSN 1324-6011, The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.,


Further resources from Terry MacKinnell – details of purchasing the book available

The Age of Aquarius for Dummies – explains the structure and sub-periods associated with the astrological ages

Aquarian Age Economics – Examines the relationship between macro-astrology and financial cycles

At the Cutting Edge of the Aquarian Age – Cutting edge research into the astrological ages for astrologers

FaceBook – keep up to date with what is happening

book-img 3D 110315
Detailed examination of the astrological ages from the Age of Leo to the Age of Aquarius including age-decans