Libra micro-age and overflow (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657)

This is a ‘full size’ 30 year Libra period being the Libra MA&OF (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657) and is the second of this size in the Libra age-decan (1433 – 2149). The most significant influence for this Libra period was dour old Capricorn, and its negative influence upon gay Libra is readily identifiable in many of the historical events of this period – especially the absence of notable women.  This Libra period fell under the shadow of the Capricorn sub-age overflow (1612 – 1791).

As to be expected, some major conflicts affected this Libra period and the major conflict of note is the British Civil Wars (1639 – 1653) and therefore closely shadowing the Libra MA&OF (1627 – 1657).  The wars included rebellions, civil wars and invasions with the most important being the English Civil War which ended when the English parliamentarian army won followed by the execution of the king, the abolition of the monarchy, and the founding of the Commonwealth of England which lasted until 1660 – only a few years past the end of this Libra period. [1] No English king had ever been previously executed.  The English Civil War, similar to the American Civil War, was a major event in the history of the UK.  Family was against family, and in all regions of Great Britain, the population was fairly evenly split in their loyalties to the crown or parliament.

Some historians claim that this civil war was the result of the arrival of the Renaissance into England which changed the balance of power, but governments tend to lag behind such changes at their peril.  The Puritans played a decisive role, and the Puritans were energized Protestants, and Protestants do represent the arrival of the Age of Aquarius into Europe as many of Protestant features invoke Aquarius such as anti the pope (anti the magnificent Leo leader), and the fact that the Protestant cults usually had strong democratic features as opposed to the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic Church modelled after the government of Ancient Rome. 

Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) was the head of state (Lord Protector) under the new commonwealth.  However his approach quickly fell out of favor after his death and his corpse was subsequently dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in British and Irish history, considered a regicidal dictator by some, and a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a class revolutionary by Leon Trotsky, and a hero of liberty by John Milton.  Cromwell was a Puritan who used his political power to actively promote the suppression of vice and encouraged virtue.[2]  Cromwell’s main generational sign was Aquarius, and his more fine-tuned generation was an Aquarius-Capricorn generation with Aquarius providing the revolutionary spirit and Capricorn the conservative Puritanism.

People today just do not understand the excitement unleashed by the Protestant revolution and arrival of the Age of Science early in the Age of Aquarius.  These excited people were able to seize the government of England for a while, and stamp out the monarchy like it was a cigarette which provided the first Aquarius revolution in the new age.  However, Aquarius is always detrimental to the UK as the UK has Leo high in its astrological signature.  It did not take long for the monarchy to return and Aquarius’ revolutionary zeal headed to North America!

A number of developments occurred due to the English Civil War with close ties to Libra.  In 1641 English law made witchcraft a capital crime (Capricorn and Libra) and a few years later in 1644 the first witch-hunter made his career in the eastern counties of England. In 1642 the English Parliament ordered the closure of all theatres in London, effectively ending the era of English Renaissance theatre established in the previous Libra period and followed by the banning of all stage plays in theatres anywhere in the country due to the stern approach to life adopted by the Puritans.  The Taliban, ISIS and ISIL were merely following in the footsteps of European fascism from earlier centuries.

Libra the balance may have archetypally influenced the appearance of the Levellers, a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651) with (Libra) justice strongly represented in its manifesto – popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law and religious tolerance. The hallmark of Leveller philosophy was its emphasis on equal natural rights.  They were not the only ones going down this path.

The Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers was formed in 1648 from ‘divine insight’ and as a Protestant Christian cult, its relevance to this Libra period is its opposition to (Aries) war and elevation of women.  In the 1650s, individual Quaker women prophesied and preached publicly, developed charismatic personae and spread the word. This practice was bolstered by the movement’s firm concept of spiritual equality for men and women. Thus the Quakers were unwittingly in service to Libra (and the spirit of Aquarius).  Interestingly, early Quakers disliked paganism so they refused to use the usual names of the days of the week, since they were derived from the names of pagan deities (planetary gods) and they refused to celebrate Christmas because they believed it was based on pagan festivities – which is true as the early Christian church borrowed Saturnalia from the Romans and rebadged it as Christmas (the general consensus of historians is that Jesus was not born in December).[3]  Only a few years past this Libra period in 1662 Quakers were persecuted for a time in the UK and American persecution commenced in 1656, only a year before the end of this Libra period, and four Quakers were actually hanged in 1660 in Boston.[4]

Libra’s connection to jurisprudence is again clearly demonstrated with the publication of a series of legal treatises The Institutes of the Lawes of England which were written and published between 1628 and 1644. Widely recognized as a foundational document for English common law, they have been cited in over 70 cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States, including several landmark cases including Roe v. Wade (1973), where The Institutes were cited as evidence that under old English common law, an abortion performed before quickening was not an indictable offence. An earlier case in 1895 referred to The Institutes for their definition of monopolies.[5]

The publication in 1644 of Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parlament of England by the English poet John Milton who strongly opposed censorship is amongst history’s most influential and impassioned philosophical defenses of the principle of a right to freedom of speech and expression. Many of its expressed principles have formed the basis for modern justifications.  Milton has been acclaimed as the “greatest English author”, and he is regarded “as one of the preeminent writers in the English language”. John Milton also promoted the legitimacy of divorce publishing The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce in 1643 which was considered heretical at the time.  Libra’s quest for justice is again displayed.

Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) was an English philosopher who is considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. He is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, in which he expounds an influential formulation of social contract theory.  Social contract definitely has a Libran tinge and the main argument is that individuals have consented, one way or another, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority (of the ruler, or to the decision of a majority) in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order. Hobbes was an early exponent of this balanced argument.[6]

Colonial America contributed to Libra even at this extremely early stage. In 1628 Puritans settled Salem, which later became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.  In 1629 around 350 English Puritans sailed from England to Salem, to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony which was granted a Royal Charter in the following year and it became a self-governing entity.  The following year brought another 700 passengers including Anne Bradstreet, America’s first poet of significance and who in 1646, became a founding mother of Andover Parish (modern-day North Andover), Massachusetts.

1630 saw the settling of Boston and a group of emigrants arrived at Southampton Hundred, on the James River in Virginia.  The first governor was appointed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1631 with the first English settlement in Maryland and in the following year Charles I of England issued a charter for the colony of Maryland.  Also in 1631, the Dutch West India Company started a settlement of the Delaware River.   In 1634 a group from the Plymouth Colony settled in Windsor, Connecticut, making it the first settlement in the state.  In 1635 Roger Williams (theologian) founded Rhode Island. And such was the rush to the colonies, in 1637 King Charles I of England issued a proclamation, attempting to stem emigration to the North American colonies.

In 1637 Elizabeth Poole became the first woman to found a town in the Americas – Taunton, Massachusetts.  In the following year, Anne Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy, and moved to Rhode Island.  In 1643 the New England Confederation (also known as the United Colonies of New England) was formed as a military alliance comprising the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Saybrook (Connecticut), and New Haven. Its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies in support of the church, and for defense against the American Indians and the Dutch colony of New Netherland. It was the first milestone on the long road to colonial unity.  Interestingly, even at this early stage, the nascent American psyche was on display as John Quincy Adams remarked two centuries later:

“Its history, like that of other confederacies, presents a record of incessant discord – of encroachments by the most powerful party upon the weaker members, and of disregard, by all the separate members, of the conclusions adopted by the whole body. Still the main purpose of the union was accomplished.”[7]

The Pisces American psyche is aptly demonstrated in the above statement.

In 1652, Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.[8]  In 1655 John Casor, became the first legally recognized slave, as a result of a civil case.  He was the first person of African descent in the Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life.  His master was perversely a freed African-American and the Virginian court sustained the right of free blacks to own slaves.  Laws racializing slavery hardened during Casor’s lifetime and after this Libra period in 1662, the Virginia Colony made a ruling that children of enslaved mothers would be born into slavery, regardless of their father’s race or status. This was in contradiction to English common law for English subjects, which based a child’s status on that of their father.[9] However, this does shift the emphasis to Libra even if it is perverse!

One of the earliest voices for modern democratic ideals in the USA was pioneered by Roger Williams (1603 – 1683), the founder of what would become the Colony of Rhode Island.  Though he was a Puritan minister, he was also a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, and fair dealings with Native Americans, and he was one of the first abolitionists as he organized the first attempt to prohibit slavery in any of England’s North American colonies. His views were far too liberal for the conservative Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay authorities and in 1635, he was convicted of sedition and heresy. They declared that he was spreading “diverse, new, and dangerous opinions”.  He was considered an important historical figure of religious liberty at the time of American independence, and he was a key influence on the thinking of the Founding Fathers.[10]  Even at this early formative time, with Roger Williams we see the divergence of American culture between modern and medieval in line with Pisces, represented by two fish swimming in opposite directions.  Pisces is the number one sign for the USA and this Pisces-divergent culture remains in place and recently demonstrated by the presidency of Donald Trump.

The discovery of Tasmania (an island south of the Australian mainland) and New Zealand in 1642 by Abel Tasman (1603 – 1659) followed by the charting of northern and western Australia (New Holland) two years later suggests a Libra connection to Australia and New Zealand especially as these voyages occurred at the pinnacle of this Libra period.

China was also a major focus within this Libra period. In 1627 the Manchus took advantage of Korea’s war-weakened state due to the unsuccessful Japanese invasion in the previous Libra period and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and this was even before the Manchus had taken over China.  In 1637 a Chinese encyclopedist published Exploitation of the Works of Nature which is considered one of the most valuable encyclopedias of classical China.  In 1641 a massive epidemic struck in northern and central China with some local areas and towns having 90% of the local populace wiped out, which may have contributed to the fall of the Ming Dynasty just three years later. In 1644 the invading Qing army captured Beijing marking the beginning of Manchu rule over China proper.  The Ming dynasty had ruled over China from 1368 to 1644 while the Qing dynasty survived until 1912 (also in a Libra period).  This major and highly significant political development in China supports a close connection between Libra and China.  However, the 1368 commencement of the Qing dynasty occurred in a Cancer sub-age decan (1314 – 1373) and Cancer appears to be the most powerful sign associated with China. 

On the artistic level, in 1642, Rembrandt finished his painting, The Night Watch – the most substantial of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period.  In the decade following the Night Watch, Rembrandt’s paintings gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes. In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.  Libra’s rulership of parks and gardens is coming into play! 

Rubens’s (1557 – 1640) later period coincided with the first part of this Libra period.  He is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens’s diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring (Libra) peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. Rubens was knighted by Charles I of England in 1630. In 1628 He began a renewed study of Titian’s paintings, copying numerous works.  By 1629 he completed one of his most important works – the Allegory of Peace and War which illustrates the artist’s lively concern for peace. His international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, and one prominent example was The Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of Antwerp. In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife, 53-year-old Rubens married his deceased wife’s 16-year-old niece, who inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus, The Three Graces and The Judgement of Paris with his wife the model for various depictions of Venus including sculptures.[11]   

Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599 – 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in his homeland and Italy.  He is best known for his portraits of the aristocracy, most notably Charles I (before he was beheaded), and his family and associates. Van Dyck became the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years.  King Charles I was the keenest collector of art among the Stuart kings, and saw painting as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy (this was the time of Capricorn). In 1628, just inside this Libra period, he purchased the fabulous collection that the Duke of Mantua was forced to sell.  Van Dyck remained in contact with the English court and helped King Charles’s search for paintings.  In England he developed a version of his style which combined a relaxed elegance and ease with an understated authority in his subjects which was to dominate English portrait-painting to the end of the 18th century. Many of these portraits have a lush (Libran) landscape background.[12]

Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) was an Italian musician and priest who composed both secular and sacred music, and was a pioneer in the development of opera – he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history.  This Libra period mainly coincided with Monteverdi’s late flowering period (1637 – 1643) commencing with the opening of the first public opera house in Europe at San Cassiano in 1637, which stimulated the city’s musical life and coincided with a new burst of the composer’s activity.  By 1656, the first opera house opened in London. Monteverdi’s contribution to opera at this period is notable and is credited for the rebirth of theatrical music and that “he will be sighed for in later ages, for his compositions will surely outlive the ravages of time.”[13] Monteverdi’s drive may have come from the fact he was born of an Aries-Aries or Aries-Pisces generation.

Molière (a stage name) (1621/2 – 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and world literature. He turned to acting in 1643 only one year past the peak of this Libra period.  His extant works include comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more often than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language is often referred to as the “language of Molière”. Despite his own preference for tragedy, Molière became famous for his farces. He began to write full, five-act comedies in verse in 1654 [14] towards the end of this Libra period which he outlived.  His attraction to farce may be explained by the fact he was born in a Scorpio-Scorpio generation and his troupe did go bankrupt at one stage.

Though highly notable females seem absent in this period, an abstract focus did prevail.  In 1629 a Chinese emperor of the Ming dynasty reiterated the state prohibition against female infanticide.  However, as perhaps an example of oriental yin yang, the same year actresses were banned from the stage in Japan. 

In 1631, the death in childbirth of the Mughal emperor’s wife caused the emperor to commission the Taj Mahal at Agra, as a mausoleum for her. Constructed from 1632 to 1653 – it also became the emperor’s tomb (at a cost of about $US956 million in today’s money).  The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage” and it was declared a winner of the New 7 Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.[15]  It could be dedicated to Libra both as a work of art and beauty plus an expression of love in marriage!

One of the 7 wonders of world and one of the major tourist attraction of India. Agra is synonymous with that monument of love, which is the stunning Taj Mahal and it is surrounded by beautiful lush green gardens and a river in backward Yamuna.By Kristian Bertel – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=99288433

The elevation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Queen of Genoa in 1637 is again in the Libra camp. And finally, Libra’s ruling planet Venus gets some attention in 1639 when the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks made the first successful prediction and observation of a transit of Venus.

Cafes breed (Libra) socializing, and the appearance of cafes in Europe coincided with this Libra period with the first café in Europe opened in Venice in 1640.  Coffee drinking became popular in Paris by 1643 and England saw its first coffeehouse open in 1651 and such were their popularity, by 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses in England.

Finally, Libra’s connection to all things beautiful naturally must include flowers, and so it is fitting that in 1637 saw the collapse of Tulip mania in the Dutch Republic. At the peak of tulip mania, in February 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the annual income of a skilled crafts worker. Another example suggests that one tulip bulb was bartered for 12 acres (5 hectares) of land.  It is believed to have been the first recorded speculative bubble and bust in history but it did not create an economic crisis for the Dutch Republic, which at the time was the world’s leading economic and financial power.[16]

Finally, the 1656 invention of the pendulum clock by Christiaan Huygens is interesting because 1656 is heavily influenced by the Capricorn sub-age overflow, Capricorn sub-age decan overflow as well as the Capricorn quasi sub-age – in other words, Capricorn the sign of time and clocks, was incredibly strong when the pendulum clock was invented.  However, the swing motion of the pendulum invokes Libra!  Pendulum clocks were the most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use until the 1930s and 40s when they were overshadowed by less-expensive, synchronous, electric clocks[17] in the Capricorn micro-age and overflow (1925 – 1940 – 1955).  In my youth I can remember when I stayed at my grandparents’ house, I used to go to sleep every night listening to the half hour and hour chimes of their mantelpiece pendulum clock which they wound up every day.

The most notable aspect of this Libra MA&OF (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657) is the lack of notable women.  There would have been some notable women that fail to register with us today, but there is a plausible astrological reason why highly placed notable women are largely absent in this larger than average Libra period.  The following list displays the Libra periods since the start of the Age of Aquarius in 1433 that have been investigated to date in this Libra series:

Pisces-Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612)

  • Libra micro-age and overflow (March 1463 – March 1478 – March 1493)
  • Libra micro-age decan and overflow (December 1527 – November 1537)
  • Libra micro-age decan and overflow (August 1582 – July 1592)

Capricorn-Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791)

  • Libra micro-age and overflow (April 1627 – May 1642 – April 1657)

With the first three Libra periods located in Pisces-Capricorn sub-age (1433 – 1612), Pisces overshadows Capricorn.  The current Libra period however is located in the Capricorn- Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791) where Capricorn is the major player.  The current Libra period is the first in the Capricorn-Sagittarius sub-age overflow and is buffeted by the strongest Capricorn influence of all the Libra periods investigated to date.  Capricorn is naturally anti-feminine due to Cancer being the opposite sign to Capricorn – and Cancer shares with Libra a strong association to females.  Furthermore, the first sub-age decan in the Capricorn- Sagittarius sub-age (1612 – 1791) is the Leo sub-age decan (1612 – 1672) and Leo is male-orientated. Naturally, the darkness of Capricorn did not limit the accusation of witchcraft against women, if anything, it magnified this horror.

The major conflict of note was the English Civil War resulting in the execution of the king and the establishment of a commonwealth in England that also banned anything frivolous or fun, as Capricorn promotes a stern authoritarian lifestyle.  This is why all theatres were closed in London in 1642.  Nevertheless Libra inspires justice, and this can be seen with the Levellers promoting modern liberal ideals – well ahead of their time.  The Quakers also promoted equality of the sexes.  The publication of The Institutes of the Lawes of England clarified many aspects of English common law that spread to the USA and other countries.  Other legal perspectives from John Milton and Thomas Hobbes pushed the boundaries of English medieval laws towards modernity.

This Libra period saw great activity in North America, especially New England or what would become the hub of the northern states in the USA and suggests that in Pisces USA, one of the fish has strong Libran qualities of justice and equality.  These new settlements include: Salem, Boston, Maryland, Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island.  The creation of the United Colonies of New England was a forerunner for the creation of the revolution USA.  The seeds of the American Civil War were put in place in this Libra period when Rhode Island passed the first law in North America making slavery illegal.

The first extensive European exploration of Australia and New Zealand in this period also suggests that inclusion of Libra into the astrological signatures for these countries (and Canada whose name was coined in the previous Libra period) provided future Libra periods confirm this assessment.

China had an exceptional development with the fall the Ming dynasty replaced by the Manchu dynasty in 1644.  The publication of the Exploitation of the Works of Nature in 1637 provides an invaluable insight into the Chinese world of this period. However, before the Ming collapsed they did reiterate the state prohibition against female infanticide

Probably the most notable development in this period was on the artistic side.  This Libra period captured key periods in the life of extremely famous artists and musicians such as Rembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck, Monteverdi, and Molière with Rubens the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition and Van Dyck dictating portraiture for the next 150 years. Monteverdi virtually created opera and Molière as one of the greatest writers in the French language and world literature.

Appropriately one of the most famous marriages in history occurred in this Libra period with the death in India of the Mughal emperor’s wife and his construction of one of the most beautiful buildings in the world – the Taj Mahal.  As a temple (ceremonial structure), ruled by Capricorn, it is better known than his wife to whom the temple is dedicated. Though this period is bereft of famous females, the elevation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Queen of Genoa in 1637 does make an attempt.  Venus (the ruler of Libra) gets a focus when the English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks made the first successful prediction and observation of a transit of Venus

Coffee promotes (Libra) social interaction and coffee made its move in this Libra period with the first European café in 1640. Libra’s association with flowers does see its manifestation with the boom of the tulip market in the Dutch Republic, followed by its bust and setting the precedent for economic cycles over the following centuries including the 21st century.  Finally the invention in 1656 of the pendulum clock aligned with Capricorn, the ruler of time, is a fitting end to this review.

Previous Libra periods Examined:

Libra micro-age decan and overflow (Aug 1582 – Jul 1592)

Libra micro-age decan and overflow (Dec 1527 – Nov 1537)

Libra micro-age and overflow (Mar 1463 – Mar 1493)

References


[1] Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:55, January 21, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wars_of_the_Three_Kingdoms&oldid=1000880639

[2] Oliver Cromwell, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:45, February 25, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oliver_Cromwell&oldid=1008321447

[3] Date of birth of Jesus, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:11, March 6, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Date_of_birth_of_Jesus&oldid=1010445690

[4] Quakers, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:30, February 24, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quakers&oldid=1007761337

[5] Institutes of the Lawes of England, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:17, January 29, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institutes_of_the_Lawes_of_England&oldid=986080859

[6] Thomas Hobbes, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:34, February 23, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thomas_Hobbes&oldid=1007665084

[7]Quincy Adams, John, ed. (1843). The New England Confederacy A Discourse delivered before the Massachusetts Historical Society, at Boston, on the 29th of May 1843; In Celebration of the Second Centennial of that Event. Charles C. Little and James Brown.

[8]“Time and Place”, . Slavery and the Making of America. Thirteen. 2004. Retrieved 2018-02-24. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years.

[9] John Casor, Wikipedia, Retrieved 05:26, January 29, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Casor&oldid=1002559074

[10] Roger Williams, Wikipedia, Retrieved 03:08, February 24, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roger_Williams&oldid=1005846600

[11] Peter Paul Rubens, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:19, February 23, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Paul_Rubens&oldid=1007461296

[12] Anthony van Dyck, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:50, February 23, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anthony_van_Dyck&oldid=1004592942

[13] Claudio Monteverdi, Wikipedia,  Retrieved 07:12, February 23, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Claudio_Monteverdi&oldid=1004321005

[14] Molière, Wikipedia, Retrieved 07:28, February 23, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moli%C3%A8re&oldid=1005804549

[15] Taj Mahal, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:34, January 29, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taj_Mahal&oldid=1002938914

[16] Tulip mania, Wikipedia, Retrieved 04:43, January 29, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tulip_mania&oldid=1002054053

[17] Pendulum clock, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:53, February 24, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pendulum_clock&oldid=999057862