The Rectification of the Aquarian Age

Extracted from Appendix C of “The Dawning – Shedding New Light on the Astrological Ages”

Copyright Terry MacKinnell 2011
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Many astrologers believe it is absolutely ridiculous to claim that the Aquarian age arrived in a specific year such as 1433 CE. Because ages are so large at around 2150 years each, how can they have an exact start in an actual year? Many astrologers are far more comfortable with the concept that an age dawns over many centuries—or as one tongue-in-cheek online blogger stated—“the yawning of the Age of Aquarius.” This vague and indeterminate approach to the cusp of ages is not supported in any other branch of astrology. Furthermore, astrology, since the time of the ancient Greeks, has followed a highly exact and mathematical approach. Based on this mathematical approach to astrology, any age should have an exact starting date. So while my precision may seem untenable, once the date calibration technique is revealed it becomes obvious. However, I do agree that it is impossible to delineate the exact year of the arrival of a multi-thousand years age based solely upon examining historical correlations to the ages. Historians are good at identifying the approximate century of the start of significant historical periods, which align themselves to the ages as indicated in Appendix B—Historians’ Perspectives Upon History. Arriving at the correct century is one thing, getting the exact year is another! However, there is absolutely no theoretical reason against doing so. The sign change of the Sun, Moon, or planet can be determined with precision so why cannot an age be determined to a specific year? Ultimately, an age should be determined to even an exact month or perhaps even an exact day and hour!

NOTE:  a video version of this post is available at YouTube

YouTube Video

The Vernal Point method established by Hipparchus in the late second century BCE is the great red herring of the astrological ages. It has created untold confusion among astrologers to date, but without them realizing this. The Vernal Point (VP) and the ages have appeared in tandem ever since Hipparchus made his discovery c.127 BCE that the stars are very slowly rotating around the Earth. Hipparchus was an elite member of the educated Greek culture and an advocate of “modern” mathematics. Using mathematics, he was able to calculate which zodiacal constellation the Sun was located within, even though this could never be seen because it is always daylight when the Sun is visible, and therefore the stars constituting the constellations are obliterated in the blue sky of daytime. The VP is the location of the Sun in a zodiacal constellation at the vernal equinox when every year the Sun crosses the equator from the Southern Hemisphere to the northern hemisphere, around 20 March each year. Hipparchus applied the “modern” VP mathematical technique to the much older zodiacal constellations.

How old are the zodiacal constellations? Some were mentioned in Sumerian texts in the third millennium BCE—most notably the constellations of Taurus, Leo, and Scorpio.[i] It has been claimed that the constellation of Taurus is shown on one of the Lascaux cave paintings dated around 17,000–15,000 BCE. One Lascaux painting is of an extinct auroch bull with the easily recognizable “V” shape of stars (the main asterism in the constellation of Taurus) painted on its head and correctly depicting the famous Pleiades asterism (also known as the seven sisters and part of the constellation of Taurus) near the shoulder of the bull.[ii]

John Britton and Christopher Walker suggest that the twelve-month administrative calendar used in twenty-first century BCE Ur, a city–state in Mesopotamia, may have been used as early as c.2900 BCE. Each month of the administrative calendar is associated with a zodiacal constellation[iii] in the correct (modern) order. This suggests a relatively advanced understanding of both astronomy and astrology as early as the third millennium BCE. An old Babylonian text indicates that around 1800 BCE, they noted the Sun passing through ten constellations, presumably mainly zodiacal constellations.[iv] It is quite possible astronomical and astrological knowledge was not consistent in archaic times, and knowledge of the stars, constellations, and astrology may have waxed and waned. Babylonian astrological knowledge of 1800 BCE may have been less than that of the preceding millennium.

From very early times, astrology paralleled astronomy and one of the main purposes of ancient astronomy was to enable astrological prognostications. However, the astrology of these ancient times was not the astrology of today—there was no horoscopic astrology until the late fifth century BCE.[v] Most researchers believe that the twelve zodiacal constellations defined by the ancient Greeks in the fifth century BCE are of much older Mesopotamian origin.[vi] Neugebauer states that while the invention of the zodiac is attributed to the ancient Greeks, the zodiacal constellations upon which the zodiac was based are much older.[vii] Alternatively, Nicholas Campion suggests that despite claims the Greeks invented the zodiac, there is compelling evidence the zodiac was developed in Mesopotamia.[viii] The origin of the zodiacal constellations is lost in the fog of prehistory. But it is safe to say the ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus is the accepted discoverer of precession, although the ancient Greeks did not invent the zodiacal constellations. Hipparchus applied his newly invented Vernal Point technique to the much older zodiacal constellations. This created a problem because Hipparchus combined a new and (for his times) modern technique of the mathematical VP with the zodiacal constellations, which predated mathematical techniques in astronomy. Mathematical techniques applied to astronomy only appeared from around 500 BCE onward.[ix] Hipparchus unwittingly mismatched his mathematical approach to the very old constellations which were defined before the intrusion of mathematics.

The application of mathematical techniques to older zodiacal constellations may seem a minor or insignificant issue. This insignificance is demonstrated by the fact that, to my knowledge since the time of Hipparchus, no known astrologer has questioned this mismatch of techniques. A similar mismatch of techniques has been observed in another dimension of astrology—fixed stars. Fixed stars are the individual stars seen in the sky. They are given the adjective “fixed” to indicate that they don’t appear to move relative to each other, unlike the Sun, Moon, and planets. Fixed stars are experiencing a revival in astrology,[x] and at the forefront of this revival is Bernadette Brady with her 1998 publication of Brady’s Book of Fixed Stars. Brady encountered a major problem in her research of the fixed stars. The modern coordinate system used to define their position in the sky was at odds with their visual position—which is how they were observed in ancient times. As a simplified example the star Betelgeuse, from the constellation of Orion, and a planet may both be located at the same ecliptic position at twenty-nine degrees Gemini based on a grid system similar to longitude. However, these two bodies will tend not to rise above the eastern horizon in tandem, nor reach their highest position in the sky at the same time, and not set together. Their appearances, culmination, and setting with respect to each other vary, depending upon the latitude of the observer and the visual distance apart the two bodies are. Their ecliptic position does not necessarily reflect their actual visual relationships to each other or to the horizon.

Claudius Ptolemy (c.90–168) revolutionized astronomy by introducing the “mathematical” ecliptic system as it provided an accurate framework to position any phenomena in the sky. Ptolemy introduced a system that parallels longitude and latitude. Over the following centuries, Ptolemy’s ecliptic system replaced the older and more tedious system of relating the stars to visual positions such as the eastern and western horizons and their culmination point (highest point attained in the sky). [xi] The older system was visually orientated. If a star and planet both appeared either rising above the eastern horizon, culminating or setting on the western horizon at the same time as each other, then they were in parans relationship and consequently had an astrological relationship. Using only Ptolemy’s projected ecliptic degrees rarely indicated this visual relationship. Therefore, Brady promotes the ancient visual parans method in place of the mathematical method adopted by the ancient Greeks as a key tool in the application and interpretation of fixed stars in astrology.

Brady encountered the same issue as I have faced with the zodiacal constellations. Ptolemy had introduced an advanced or “modern” grid system for the sky that overlooked the older visual technique. Consequently, much of the astrological lore of the fixed stars became lost as Ptolemy’s new technique pushed parans aside. Similarly, Hipparchus introduced his Vernal Point as the calibration technique for the ages based on the zodiacal constellations, but failed to realize that the old zodiacal constellations had an older method of calibration. Alternatively, Hipparchus did not understand the significance of heliacal rising constellations in relation to the astrological ages. The older method of calibrating the zodiacal constellations is also a visual technique. All old astronomical techniques were visual—mathematics took an insignificant role in ancient astronomy. In this regard I am much indebted to a paper by Rumen Kolev—Some Reflections about Babylonian Astrology.[xii] In this paper, Kolev explains the five basic principles applied to ancient astronomy techniques in Babylon. In summary, three of these principles state the visible light directly received from a stellar object was of primary concern, as the ancients believed “God is Light.” In those days, the view of the heavens by the unaided eye was the only method of determining astronomical phenomena. The other two principles are that the two key times for astronomical observations are around Sunrise and Sunset.

In ancient times, the telescope was preceded by the line of the horizon and Neugebauer states that Babylonian astronomers were mainly concerned about astronomical phenomena on the horizon.[xiii] For example, a major Babylonian text dated 1400–1000 BCE supplies the heliacal rising dates of thirty-four stars and constellations according to their 360-day annual calendar.[xiv] In ancient Upper Egypt, the heliacal rising of the star Sirius marked the beginning of the year.[xv] The heliacal rising of a star or planet is its first appearance on the eastern horizon in the early morning sky just before the rays of the Sun obliterate the stars from the night sky. The ancient Greek author Hesiod, a contemporary of Homer, mentions the heliacal risings of the star Acturus and asterism, the Pleiades, as if the reader of his times clearly understood what he was talking about.[xvi] To many ancient people, the heliacal phenomena of stars and constellations were an integral part of their calendar. In practical terms, the heliacal rising of a body occurs about one hour before Sunrise, but this will vary with latitude, season, and the brightness of the bodies involved. Rumen Kolev also states the heliacal rising (or setting) of a stellar object must occur before the Sun rises (or after it sets).[xvii]

Gavin White in his book Babylonian Star-Lore proposes the most relevant astronomical feature of ancient times (presumably other than the position of the Sun and Moon) were the stars on the eastern horizon just before dawn.[xviii] White goes further and claims that the first star maps were actually a calendar in the sky, with the equinoxes and solstices as the reference grid for the calendar.[xix] In the earliest times of civilization, mankind referred to the stars in their heliacal mode with a specific focus upon the two annual equinoxes and solstices. Their New Year, commencing at the spring equinox, elevates this point above the autumn equinox and two solstices. This ancient view of the cosmos is basically in agreement with my approach to the astrological ages based on precession presented in this book. The modern approach to calibrating the ages using the Vernal Point is incongruous to the original methods of observing the stars and constellations. This incongruity of using the position of the Sun at the vernal equinox as the calibrator for the astrological ages is put into context by Nicholas Campion, who states that in observational astronomy it makes no sense to place the Sun in a constellation or among stars, because whenever the Sun is visible the stars are not.[xx] Observational astronomy was the astronomy of the ancients.

From very early on in my research, I was aware that my rectification of the ages was out of phase with the most common alignment of the ages by about half a sign based on the VP. One sign (age) is about 2150 years, making half a sign equivalent to about 1075 years. So while I was claiming the Aquarian age arrived in 1433 CE, most astrologers were convinced that the correct date was around 2500–2600 CE. Therefore, when I stated the Aquarian age commenced in the fifteenth century, this was about halfway through the commonly accepted Pisces age. My rectification propelled me half an age into the future. I could not understand why I had the Aquarian age commencing about 1,100 years before the Vernal Point entered the sidereal sign of Aquarius associated with the constellation of Aquarius. This was only resolved once I finally discovered the ancient visual techniques of astronomy, and specifically the technique of the visible heliacal rising procedure.

Elementary astronomy provides the reason why my rectification of the ages is half a sign in advance—it is because the commonly accepted ages based on the VP are half an age late! The VP is located at the Sun’s position on the vernal equinox (21 March). The heliacal zodiacal constellation is viewed approximately one hour before the Sun rises. As students, most of us are taught the Earth rotates on its own axis once per day, and all 360 degrees rise above the horizon in twenty-four hours. Therefore, in two hours, on average, thirty degrees will rise up over the horizon. Each zodiacal sign averages thirty degrees of the ecliptic. In one hour, approximately, fifteen degrees of the ecliptic rises—this is equivalent to half a zodiacal sign. This is the source of the discrepancy between the ages as defined by Hipparchus and the ages based on the ancient visible heliacal method. The difference between the ancient techniques of the heliacal rising zodiacal constellation at the VE compared to the modern VP method is approximately fifteen degrees, half a sign/age or about 1,075 years.

In ancient times, the zodiacal constellations were meant to be read via their visible heliacal position when applied to the astrological ages. The error Hipparchus made in 127 BCE when he inadvertently used the VP in place of the visible heliacal method delayed his ages by approximately 1,075 years. It took me fourteen years of intermittent research to discover the paradox of the zodiacal constellations when applied to the ages. However, once I gained understanding of the ancient heliacal method of calibrating the zodiacal constellations, I was more than pleased to discover this ancient method coincided with my rectification of the ages. It is easy to understand why astrologers were misled for over 2,000 years by Hipparchus’s red herring. But this does not undermine the advances Hipparchus introduced to astronomy and astrology.

I am not the only researcher who acknowledges the heliacal rising of the zodiacal constellations at the spring equinox as the astronomical framework for the ages. Sepp Rothwangl in Considerations About the Start of the Age of Aquarius[xxi] claims that, in ancient times, a new constellation rising on the eastern horizon before Sunrise on the morning of the Northern Hemisphere spring equinox was the main criterion for the start of a New Age. Rothwangl also states that such a change from Pisces to Aquarius has already occurred, thus indicating the arrival of the new Age of Aquarius. John H Rogers approaches this problem from a different angle in comparing the solar position of the Sun in a constellation and its heliacal rising. Rogers states that the difference in appearance between the solar position and heliacal rising method is about 1,000 years.[xxii] This is also very close to half an age—the approximate difference between my approach to the ages and the currently accepted method.

A simple analogy of the error which Hipparchus introduced to the ages occurred to me in the 1980s. The plan was that I should drive to a neighboring town in a friend’s BMW, because he had drunk heavily the night before and asked me to drive. It was my first time driving a BMW and I was impressed. As I passed through each town I slowed to 60 and sped up to 100 on the open road according to the indicated speed limits. I also noticed how slow and sluggish the traffic was on the journey. Nearing journey’s end, I discovered that the speedometer was in miles per hour (mph) but the road signs were in kilometers per hour (kph). So when I thought I was driving at the 100 kph speed limit, I was actually driving at 100 mph (approximately 160 kph), and when I slowed down to 60 in towns, I was actually only slowing down to 60 mph (approximately 96 kph). I was lucky I did not encounter any traffic police! What I suffered from was a calibration error. Hipparchus suffered from a calibration error when he applied the VP method to precession and astronomers and astrologers have adhered to this erroneous VP calibration technique ever since. Hipparchus may have made a fundamental error when he introduced his VP methodology for calibrating the ages, but regardless of the appropriateness of his technique, it remains an astronomical technique. The physical position of the Sun at the vernal equinox does pass through the sidereal zodiac centered on the zodiacal constellations. Any astronomical phenomenon has potential for astrological interpretation. Sophisticated analysis of the astrological ages does lend credibility to Hipparchus’s VP methodology, but not as a primary technique applied to the astrological ages. It does, however, provide a relative accurate secondary technique for analyzing the astrological ages which was reviewed in Chapter 8, Quasi-Ages.

If the ancient heliacal method is applied to the zodiacal signs, a very different time frame is provided compared to the Vernal Point method. For example, in 2007 at the vernal equinox, the Sun (VP) sits in the constellation of Pisces, though the constellation of Pisces cannot be seen, because whenever the Sun is visible it is daytime and the stars are not visible. The Vernal Point will remain in the constellation of Pisces for many more centuries. However, if you are awake one hour before dawn, when the stars are still visible on the eastern horizon, the last stars seen rising up from the eastern horizon before the sky turns blue is the constellation of Aquarius. Therefore, the constellation of Aquarius is the visible heliacal rising constellation. The constellation of Aquarius has been the visible heliacal rising constellation for centuries. The conundrum is that, based on the Vernal Point located in the constellation of Pisces, we are supposedly in the Age of Pisces and will remain so for many centuries while based on the visible heliacal rising of the constellation of Aquarius, we are in the Age of Aquarius and have been in the Age of Aquarius for centuries. How does one go about resolving such an enigma? I never faced this problem since my research was based on a symbolic interpretation of correlative historical evidence—not theory or astronomy. I encountered the zodiacal constellations very early on, but had reason to believe that something was undermining their astrological integrity when applied to the astrological ages. What influenced me more than the physical zodiacal constellations was qualitative evidence based on historical events. Within months of starting my research, the realization that the Aquarian age had commenced in the fifteenth century was purely based on an interpretation of historical evidence.

I arrived at the fifteenth century as the start of the Aquarian age due to rectification. A normal person does not encounter rectification in their life—it sounds rather unpleasant. Rectification is like reverse engineering. If a person’s horoscope indicates an overall picture of their life including time frames for specific events in their life, then the reverse is also true. Important events in a person’s life can be used to reconstruct their horoscope and calculate their time of birth. An accurate horoscope requires an accurate time of birth, as on average a new ecliptic degree rises up above the eastern horizon approximately every four minutes and a new rising sign (ascendant) approximately every two hours. The ascendant (rising sign) is the most significant astrological element in a horoscope, not the common Sun sign found in newspapers and magazines, so determining an accurate time of birth is paramount in constructing a relevant chart. Many people do not have an accurate time for their birth. In the case of an unknown or inaccurate time of birth, an experienced astrologer will try and recreate a hypothetical horoscope based on events which have already occurred in their client’s life and work backward to validate it. There are many different techniques available for rectification purposes, but I believe I had some success in rectifying charts before I commenced researching the ages. I applied these rectification skills to the ages, and I was very surprised at what I found.

Like many astrologers, I thought that the Age of Aquarius commenced around the twentieth century. Aquarius is commonly associated with electricity, flight, and democracy in contemporary astrology. The world has recently been lit up by electric lights, electric appliances, and computers are everywhere, and flying has become common. Many countries have adopted democratic governments of one form or another over the last 100 years. This looked, felt, and tasted like Aquarius. Though such an initial assessment is often used in rectification, it is only one of its minor aspects. As I applied more sophisticated rectification techniques, I quickly became aware that the Aquarian age could not possibly have arrived in the twentieth century. I kept looking further away from the twentieth century, both forward and backward in time. It was not until I arrived at the fifteenth century that everything commenced to mesh. I never envisioned or expected an Aquarian age commencing in the fifteenth century, and I have encountered a lot of hostility from astrologers and the general public when I make this claim.

The Aquarian age did not arrive in 1433 CE due to a few isolated events. It arrived because historical correlations confirm this date. Nowhere in any of this research did the zodiacal constellations appear. I knew where the Aquarian age existed, including all other ages, based purely on qualitative historical evidence. I was well aware that my revolutionary date for the start of the Aquarian age did not agree with the Vernal Point method used by astrologers over the last 2,000 years. However, once I understood the ancient visible heliacal rising method, I realized it tallied with my radical rectification. So while I had initially ignored the zodiacal constellations, they ultimately supported me when viewed in their heliacal rising mode.

My approach to rectify the Aquarian age was based upon subages (the twelve fold subdivision of signs termed “dwadasamsa” by Vedic astrologers and abbreviated to dwad in the West). Dwads can also be employed in Western horoscopic astrology, and I had relatively extensive experience with dwads in my practice of Western astrology for at least fifteen years prior to researching the astrological ages. The application of dwads was one of my key rectification techniques when someone did not know their exact time of birth. Due to my familiarity with dwads, I naturally turned to this method as a possible way of defining smaller periods within the astrological ages.

The dwad system is fairly simple. The first sub-sign of any sign is the same as the sign, with the following sub-signs placed in correct order. For example, the first sub-sign of Aquarius is Aquarius, with the following sub-signs Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, and finishing with Capricorn.[xxiii] Because I apply the subperiods of ages geometrically, all the dwads must be reversed in the same way that age decans are retrograde. To my knowledge, no other researcher has applied the retrograde movement of the dwad subperiods. Charles Carter, an eminent British astrologer of the twentieth century, devoted a small part of his book An Introduction to Political Astrology (Mundane Astrology) to the astrological ages.[xxiv] He chose the contradictory subage system of having the Aries to Pisces sub-sign for each age. But even Carter said that he questioned his sub-sign approach and thought there was some validity in reversing the sub-signs in line with their parent ages as there was “logical consistency” in also reversing the age subperiods.[xxv]

To the detached observer, it may seem strange that I chose the least popular option in investigating the subperiod structure of the ages. There was a very good reason for this. My initial research took place in the pre-Internet world of the 1980s when I was living near Byron Bay on the east coast of Australia, away from any major city (at that time before freeways appeared in the region)—and fairly isolated from the wider astrological community. Therefore, I was unaware, except at the most rudimentary level, of the contemporary state of research into the ages by other astrologers. Thus, in my research cocoon, I was free from the influence of other research astrologers. This was possibly a blessing in disguise.

Applying the retrograde (geometric) dwad system to the Age of Aquarius produces a subage order commencing with Capricorn, and followed by Sagittarius, Scorpio, Libra, and so on. Applying the same methodology to the end of the Pisces age indicates that the last three subages of the Age of Pisces in chronological order should be Taurus, Aries, and Pisces. Something very interesting occurs when the subages at the end of the Pisces age are married to subages at the beginning of the Aquarian age. Combining the last few subages of the Pisces age and the first few subages of the Aquarian age provided the following in chronological order: Taurus, Aries, Pisces in the Pisces age and Capricorn, Sagittarius, Scorpio, and Libra in the Aquarian age. The interesting point here is that the Aquarius subage appears missing, as in the traditional zodiac Aquarius sits between Capricorn and Pisces. Aquarius is not really missing, it is found at the other end of the Aquarian age. It is a quirk of the dwad system, that when applied geometrically to the ages, at the beginning of each age there is a discontinuity in the subage structure—but only at the cusp of ages. The “missing” subage is always the same sign as the new age. This apparent quirk was a gift in disguise for the reason that I had lost confidence in the integrity of the zodiacal constellations (or the more refined and associated sidereal zodiac) as calibrators of the astrological ages, despite the fact they had been used by astrologers for the last 2,100 years. I was prepared to find the world in any of the twelve ages regardless of what the zodiacal constellations (or sidereal zodiac) indicated. The geometric dwad approach indicated that if I could discover the subages and find a discontinuity in the subages as described above, the missing subage should indicate which age was being examined via their subage structure.

With a theoretical basis to the subages in hand, I sat down to search for these subages and test if qualitative empirical evidence supported my approach. In retrospect, it did not take me long, about six weeks if my memory is correct, but I had one large hurdle to overcome. This hurdle was the common expectation that the Aquarian age arrived either in or close to the twentieth century—I also saw and was influenced by the theatrical production of Hair in the late 1970s. Therefore, I tried to force historical periods into a subage structure that aligned the cusp of the Pisces and Aquarian ages to around the end of the twentieth century. Based on this approach, the last subage in the Pisces age was Pisces while the first subage encountered in the Aquarian age is the Capricorn subage.

Subages, at a length of approximately 179 years each, are much easier to align to historical trends compared to ages of around 2,150 years each. Any elementary examination of history provides examples of many historical periods involving one, two or three hundred years—all in the realm of subages. Such periods include the Renaissance, the Age of Maritime Exploration, the Scientific Revolution, The Industrial Age, the Romantic period, the Enlightenment, the Atomic Age, the Computer Age, Post-Modernism, and so on. These types of periods all have their own “personality” or archetypal signature. The personality of maritime exploration is entirely different to the personality of the Scientific Revolution. The personality, nature, or archetypal essence of these different periods provided clues to the particular astrological archetypes which should be employed. For example, I knew the world was currently in the Atomic Age, but I could not see how atomic energy and weapons aligned to either Pisces or Capricorn, the two subages theoretically in our vicinity at the cusp of the Pisces and Aquarian ages in either the twentieth or twenty-first centuries. I spent a number of frustrating days, trying to align the common historical periods with subages.

Eventually, I discarded the notion that the world was on the cusp of the Pisces and Aquarian ages and I went to extremes—looking for this cusp in a period of plus or minus 1,000 years from the present. Once I took this approach, I finally discovered the tentative alignment of the Renaissance with Aries. History books consistently promoted the view that the Renaissance was a time of renewed vigor and energy as Western culture rediscovered its cultural roots in ancient Rome and Greece. Initially I considered the appropriate astrological archetype for the Renaissance should be Scorpio—the sign of renewal and regeneration. However, if the Renaissance was associated with Scorpio, this would push the arrival of the Aquarian age back to before 1000 CE, something which just seemed too extreme. Following quickly on the heels of the Renaissance was the Age of Maritime Discoveries when Europeans struck out from their home base and discovered the West African Coast, Atlantic Islands, and shortly afterward the Americas. This development was not insignificant—it was a major maritime event in world history, if not the most significant maritime event in the history of the world, and the oceans are traditionally linked to Pisces. Next came the Scientific Revolution—the Renaissance reconnected Europeans to their Roman and Greek cultural roots and the extensive scientific knowledge of the Classical World. Once the Renaissance rediscovered this information and transmitted it throughout Europe, academics commenced investigating the claims of the ancient scientists. They found many claims of classical scholars from antiquity were incorrect.

Testing claims of the ancient scholars involves the application of logic combined with empirical evidence. Unwittingly the European scholars stumbled upon a methodology which allowed them to perceive, understand, and explain the behavior of much of the world and universe. This unleashed the Scientific Revolution. Formerly the approach to anything not understood was to blame spirits, witches, demons, astrology, or God—many things in the Middle Ages were not understood. Logic and science are archetypes closely associated with Capricorn. Next in line came the Industrial Revolution and population explosion. These can easily be aligned with archetypes associated with Sagittarius, the sign of good fortune, expansion, and increase. Anything to do with atomic energy is easily aligned with Scorpio—the sign associated with hidden intensity. This rather simple correlation between historical developments and their possible subage structure produced the following Table 16:

Table 16—Historical periods aligned to subages


Period Subage
Renaissance Aries
Maritime discoveries Pisces
Scientific Revolution Capricorn
Industrial Revolution and Population Explosion Sagittarius
Atomic Age Scorpio

Table 16 displays an alignment of major historical developments over the last 700 years and the projected subage structure at the end of the Pisces age and beginning of the Aquarian age. In addition, the discontinuity between Pisces and Capricorn indicates that the cusp of the Pisces and Aquarian ages occurred in the last millennium based on the geometric application of the dwad subage structure applied to ages. In respect to my research on the ages to date—this revelation was an epiphany. Little did I know at that stage there were many more to come—with the most recent occurring while writing this book and discovering quasi-periods.

Once I had established the basic framework and structure of the subages over the last 700 years, I needed to come up with accurate dates to be applied for each of the subages I had discovered. There were two issues that needed to be overcome to do this, but the first issue I did not know even existed at the time. The issue was the Overflow Effect. I discovered the Overflow Effect accidentally. The process of discovering the Overflow Effect was again very simple. I quickly realized that if various historical periods were aligned to their respective subage, I needed to find the earliest manifestation of each historical period. For example, when did the Renaissance begin? Typically in history books the focus of the Renaissance is fifteenth century Italy.[xxvi] However, upon digging deeper, I discovered historians who claimed the first embryonic developments of the Renaissance occurred at the tail end of the Middle Ages, around 1300 CE, in the lifetimes of the famous artist Giotto, the founder of the Florentine School, and the Italian writer Dante. Furthermore, the Renaissance was entrenched as an emergent historical period by the middle of the fourteenth century, a century before most people acknowledge the Renaissance.[xxvii]


There is little doubt that the flowering of the Renaissance occurred in the fifteenth century following the Proto-Renaissance of the fourteenth century—but the Renaissance did not conclude with the close of the fifteenth century. In the sixteenth century, the Renaissance moved onto the High Renaissance, and around 1520 CE to the end of the sixteenth century evolved into Mannerism which shifted the emphasis away from classical ideals and nature to the stress of the artists’ personal emotions[xxviii]—including what could be termed the subjective and irrational.[xxix] The Renaissance, normally assigned to the fifteenth century, actually covers a period from 1300 to around 1600 CE—a period close to 300 years. This is where I cut my teeth on the Overflow Effect. I became aware that the first blush of a new historical period is like a seed, while the full blown example of the same period is a tree. The seed occurs in the actual subage with which the historical period is aligned archetypically, while its greatest manifestation or effect takes place in the following subage.

The same phenomena that took shape with the Renaissance as described above apply to all historical periods. Once I pulled out my encyclopedias and available books I discovered that the seeds for the maritime discoveries, Scientific Revolution, and so on occurred much earlier than most people acknowledge. However, despite these earlier than expected beginnings, the emergent historical trends took a long time to become noticeable. For example, people know Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492 CE, but few people realize the extent of shipbuilding developments preceding this event which were necessary to allow European ships to travel such long distances over uncharted waters and return safely.[xxx]

There was one more step required before accurately assigning the start date of subages. This was a very important issue because obviously if I could calculate a plausible date for the start of each subage, this automatically provides an exact hypothetical date for the beginning of the Aquarian age, because the Aquarian age commences with the Capricorn subage. The only way to determine the start of a subage is again to look for smaller wheels within these wheels. Did subages subdivide again into twelve micro-ages? Unless research could be substantiated by observable qualitative empirical evidence, I had no idea if subages were also subdivisible. Nevertheless, I decided to investigate. By 1994, I believed I had found micro-ages in the twentieth century, which appropriately fitted the Scorpio subages that applied to most of the twentieth century. I used these micro-ages to date the Scorpio subage, which allowed me to establish the beginning of the Age of Aquarius at 1472 CE. However, I was well aware that micro-ages at 1/12th the size of a subage (179 years) should be approximately fifteen years long, and so my error in this rectification of the Aquarian age may be up to fifteen years. Therefore, I stated in 1994 that the Aquarian age arrived in 1472 CE or up to fifteen years earlier in 1457 CE.[xxxi] The 1457 CE date consequently appeared in Nicholas Campion’s book The Book of World Horoscopes (p. 489) along with the more refined but still inaccurate dates of 1450 CE and 1447 CE from some later published articles. Some of these dates appear to have been referred to in other books such as True as the Stars Above (p. 115) and The Great Ages and Other Astrological Cycles (p. 8).

My initial micro-age research up to 1994 was a mistake. It is not necessary to go into the details of this other than to say it was done in haste and evidence was not confirmed to a high level of verification—my excitement got the better of me. Based on what was a limited number of micro-ages applicable only to the twentieth century, I made judgments which in hindsight were quite understandable—but avoidable. I only discovered my error when my attention turned again to the micro-ages in 2000 after a six-year break from serious research. Once I commenced examining micro-ages from previous centuries, as well as the twentieth century, I was able to adjust my proposed start of the Aquarian age to 1465 CE (or up to 15 years earlier) based on the new evidence. By 2001, I had fine tuned it to 1457 CE and lopped off another ten years in 2002—to 1447 CE. By 2003, it had moved back to 1442 CE where it was to stay until early 2005. In 2005, I adjusted the start to 1441 CE. This slow backward movement of the start of the Aquarian age occurred because the more I researched the micro-ages, the earlier I found their less observable seeds. The very beginning of a micro-age is difficult to detect and I had to learn this skill. Because I was limiting my research to micro-ages of approximately fifteen years, all these dates had a possible start for the Aquarian age up to fifteen years earlier (i.e., the same order of magnitude of a micro-age). Unless I could use a smaller time frame, I was limited to this potential fifteen-year error. I partially overcame this hurdle by researching micro-age decans of approximately five years in length. I believed I was able to perceive enough micro-age decans over the last two centuries to confirm the location of the micro-ages to within five years of accuracy.

There is an intrinsic difficulty in drilling down into subperiods of the ages, and while subages appear easier to discern than whole ages, the further down the drilling occurs past this point—the greater the difficulty. Take micro-age decans for example. While looking for historical events that can correlate to these five year micro-age decans (plus another five years for their respective overflows), above these are the micro-ages and their correlations, subage decans, subages, age decans and ages, including all of their respective overflows. The “distortion” or “noise” from competing periods is enormous. In fact, this is why I made some fundamental mistakes in my first investigation of micro-ages in 1994—my perception was distorted by a sixty-year Pisces subage decan and the following sixty-year overflow which was in effect for most of the twentieth century. Incidentally, “distortion” is an archetype associated with Pisces. Despite the noise from competing and adjoining periods, it is possible to distinguish between them because the time span of an event associated with a subperiod of an astrological age should be of the same order of magnitude as the period being examined. For example, a subage of 179 years plus its overflow of approximately 179 years provided a period of 2 × 179 = 358 years. Therefore, historical correlations to subages should be in the order of 180 to 400 years. A subage decan of sixty years plus overflow should have associated historical events with an order of magnitude of 60 to 150 years and so on.

The real breakthrough in the accuracy of my rectification came in May of 2006. For a long time, I recognized that theoretically each micro-age of approximately fifteen years, which I had broken down into three decans of five years each, should also be able to be broken down into twelve subperiods of approximately fifteen months each—which I termed nano-ages. The noise at this level is tremendous, as not only is the weight of all the subperiods and ages lying above them, but also the transiting outer planets and their combinatory cycles are also clearly evident at this level. Despite what appeared to be a massive hurdle, I did finally theorize nano-ages. The superficial proof that I have correctly assigned historical developments to their respective nano-ages is tenuous when relying solely upon nano-ages themselves, but this accuracy extends and is verified all the way up to the start of the Aquarian age, including all the subperiods available between nano-ages and ages. I am confident my rectification of the ages and their subperiods are within fifteen months accuracy, and it is not plus or minus fifteen months, only a possible minus fifteen months. Therefore, the Aquarian age may have arrived as early as 1431 CE.

Based on research also involving micro-ages, nano-ages and their decans, the following is an outline of the key subages in the second millennium, which at a minimum confirms the arrival of the Aquarian age in the fifteenth century CE:

Aries subage (1072–1253 CE) of the Pisces age (732 BCE–1433 CE)

Aries is the sign of war, weapons, and new beginnings. Europe experienced an urban renaissance unlike anything since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. This urbanization commenced relatively early in this Aries subage from the mid-1000s onward. Two highly significant military developments occurred in this Aries subage categorically linking this period to Aries. Firstly the Chinese began using gunpowder and with gunpowder they developed self-propelled missiles for military purposes. Obviously gunpowder did not save the Chinese as Genghis Khan (c.1162–1227 CE) “Conqueror of the World,” and his dynasty to Kublai Khan (1260–1368 CE) conquered China, West Turkestan, Afghanistan, northern India, Manchuria Russia, Tibet, Persia, Mesopotamia, Korea and made conquests in Cambodia, Burma, and Vietnam. In the West, he made it to the gates of Venice before retreating for internal political reasons. Genghis Khan conquered more of the Eurasian landmass than any other conqueror, which places him at the top of the military club. Great military leaders appear when Aries is strong.

Seen in context of the ages, this Aries subage is in the Aries age overflow (732 BCE–1433 CE), and so this subage was the last hurrah of the Aries age—ruled by Mars the God of War. Therefore, this Aries subage has an elevated status compared to many other subages. It should be noted that the second last subage of any age in its overflow period will always be of the same sign as the age overflow sign. This means, for example, the Aries era (2916 BCE–1433 CE) finished with a flourish as the end of this age—wave concludes with Aries again very strong. This not only occurred in the Aries subage (1072–1253 CE), but also in the Aries subage Overflow (1253–1433 CE).

Aries subage overflow (1253–1433 CE)

Aries is also the sign of male youths and right on cue Renaissance artists delighted in portraying male youths—such as the famous nude male statue David by Michelangelo, which symbolically harks back to the ancient Greeks’ fondness for homosexual relationships between young boys and older men. The artistic impetus for the Renaissance is attributed to the Italian, Giotto (c.1266–1337 CE), considered to be the founder of modern Western painting. Another famous Italian of the period was Dante (c.1265–1321 CE), the founder of contemporary Italian literature. Petrarch (1304–74 CE) lived near Dante and is considered one of the earliest modern lyric poets.[xxxii] Petrarch’s fame extends to symbolically commencing the Renaissance when he made the effort to climb Mont Ventoux in 1336 CE—an activity way outside the norm for behavior at the time.[xxxiii] Petrarch is considered the first great humanist, and he was crowned Poet Laureate in Rome in 1341 CE. Humanism was precipitated by a renewed interest in classical studies of Greek and Roman writers and artists. For example, ancient Greek literature was introduced to the University of Florence in 1397 CE. In addition, Renaissance Italy prototyped trade into modern capitalism—linking industry, external trade, and banks.

However, cultural activities can never monopolize Aries, the sign of war, and so the Hundred Years’ War (1340–1453 CE) resulted in some of the most famous historical battles between England and France including Agincourt and the liberation of Orleans lead by Joan of Arc. Even the “ideal” woman of this period wore armor and fought in wars. Of course in parallel with the Aries subage overflow was the Pisces subage sharing the same slot in time, 1253–1433 CE.

The Pisces subage (1253–1433 CE) of the Pisces age (732 BCE–1433 CE)

Pisces is the sign of the oceans, major calamities, religious schisms, and Christianity. Henry the Navigator opened the world’s first navigational school and planned the circumnavigation of Africa in the early 1400s. An expedition headed for the Canary Islands in 1402 CE. The Madeiras were subsequently discovered in 1419 CE, followed by the Azores in 1445 CE. On the other side of the world, the famous Chinese eunuch admiral, Zheng He, had completed a number of groundbreaking voyages to Southeast Asia, India, and Africa—and possibly other continents—before the Chinese (Pisces) bureaucracy convinced the Chinese emperor to prevent further expeditions in 1434 CE with the destruction of their fleet and records of previous voyages. Pisces was in full calamity mode when the Black Death swept Europe in the mid-1300s. At least one quarter of Europe’s population is believed to have perished. This calamity remains unparalleled in Europe to this day. The late 1300s brought simultaneous social upheavals in Italy, France, and England and the start of the Great Schism (1378–1417 CE). The Great Schism saw two Popes, one in Avignon, the other in Rome, with European states aligned to one or the other. Pisces bipolar nature was not limited to Europe as India was effectively split in two from about 1350 CE onward, with the Hindu Vijayanaga Empire controlling the whole of southern India and Muslim sultanates to the north—making India a dual political and religious system.

 Pisces subage overflow (1433–1612 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Commencing in 1433 CE is the Pisces age overflow, Pisces age-decan overflow and Pisces subage overflow (some Pisces events associated with the age and age-decan overflow are not included here). Pisces is also the sign of poetry, beautiful works of art and literature, mysticism, witches, slaves, and drugs. But maritime discoveries made the most impact during this time. Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492 CE, appropriately called the New World, and Vasco da Gama reached India by 1498 CE, with Magellan circumnavigating the world in 1522 CE. For the first time in history, the whole world becomes known—a highly significant and major breakthrough.

Religious problems associated with Pisces continued to develop and by 1546 CE, upon Luther’s death, Lutherans and Protestantism controlled most of northern Europe including Germany, Sweden, Norway Denmark, Finland, Prussia, the Baltic States, and England. To this was added Scotland in 1567 CE. The breakaway Protestants and established Roman Catholic Church created great havoc leading to the Wars of Religion, including the Spanish Armada in 1588 CE. On the mystical side of Christianity Theresa of Avila, a famous nun, wrote poetry and notes on mystical theology. Mysticism is not exclusive—the Indian mystic, Guru Nanak, founded the Sikh religion following three episodes of “mystical ecstasy” in 1499 CE. Christianity’s punitive side was also in full swing. From around 1450 CE, and for the next 200 years, many thousands of people, mainly women, were executed for witchcraft throughout Europe. This can also be partly explained by the Capricorn subage which coincides with the Pisces subage overflow.

Pisces excelled on the aesthetic front. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616 CE) wrote Don Quixote between 1602 and 1615 CE, and the greatest poet of all times lived during this subage—William Shakespeare (1564–1616 CE). In addition, there were Michelangelo (1475–1564 CE) and Leonardo Da Vinci (1452–1519 CE), painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, and scientist who is best known for his paintings, Mona Lisa (1503–7 CE) and The Last Supper, completed in 1498 CE, which reflected the Piscean spiritual or aesthetic quality of the time.

Pisces slavery, strong throughout the Pisces age proper, moved into another gear and direction during this Pisces subage overflow with the beginning of the African slave trade, particularly to the Americas, in 1542 CE. Pisces is very fond of drugs, both legal and illicit, and tobacco quickly became a global product. Fewer people know that another manifestation of drugs occurred when large numbers of European peasantry went on a period of hallucinatory trips known as St Vitus’ dance in the early 1500s, due to relying on mind-altering plants with LSD-like effects during a wheat shortage.

Capricorn subage (1433–1612 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Capricorn is the sign of science, logic, time, conservatism, and suppression. Capricorn is also opposite the sign Cancer, one of the key signs for females, and this symbolically explains the saturnine church elders ordering the execution of mainly women as witches during this time. The Congregation of Cardinals of the Holy Inquisition was established in 1542 CE, to subdue opposition within territories ruled by Catholic authorities. Capricorn is also associated with the archetype of Satan[xxxiv] and it is easy to perceive Satan’s archetypal ruling influence in the Roman Catholic Church at this time. Fortunately, Copernicus (1473–1543 CE) died before the church could get at him, as he died the day the first published copy of his book was handed to him. Copernicus’s revolutionary proposal of the heliocentric (Sun based) solar system, published in 1543 CE, was far too radical for the church as it implied the Earth, with its human inhabitants, was not the center of the universe. This was perceived to take the emphasis away from the “greatness” of human beings, but in reality it is an early example of the Aquarian age which also arrived with this Capricorn subage. Aquarius detracts from the greatness of its opposite sign—Leo, and will therefore undermine humanity’s ego or self-proclaimed greatness. The same phenomenon was seen with Darwin’s Theory of Evolution implicating that humans were in fact another branch of animals.

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452–1519 CE) preceded the Scientific Revolution by a century. Leonardo was designing gliders, parachutes, armored tanks, town planning techniques, drainage and irrigation, and submarines to name but a few. He was a taste of things to come. The invention of the microscope in 1590 CE and the telescope around 1605 CE was followed by an avalanche of scientific discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry. Other leading players and their recorded achievements are Bacon with The Advancement of Learning in 1605 CE; Kepler’s On The Motion Of Mars in 1609 CE; and Novum Organum in 1620 CE. The first astronomical observatory was constructed at the end of the sixteenth Century. And issues regarding time nearly always seem to pop up under Capricorn—in this case, the modern year (as currently employed in most of the world) was established in 1582 CE.

Capricorn subage overflow (1612–1791 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Capricorn is also the sign of hardship and misery. This found keen expression in India, where the Moghul Empire forced the peasants to live and die in misery while extravagant architectural construction such as the Taj Mahal depleted the treasury. Another saturnine and influential church figure who thrived under severe Capricorn was John Calvin (1509–1564 CE), who was instrumental in the formation of the Protestant work ethic and the harsh, even austere approach to life. This fire and brimstone style of religion and life to which the English and the Scots most responded, and the Puritans took with them to America, is the source of the American “moral majority,” fundamentalist Christians and arch conservatives who are so overly represented in the USA. Capricorn, therefore, is part and parcel of the astrological signature for the USA. Puritan intolerance was cultivated in England by the stern Puritan Lord Protector of England, Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658 CE), who had overthrown the monarchy only to instill a joyless and harsh arch-conservative Christian social policy upon the English (similar to the modern Taliban in the Middle East). By the mid 1700s the Ibn Saud family (forebears of the current rulers of Saudi Arabia) adopted the strict and fundamentalist Wahhabism Islamic doctrine to restore the “purity” of the Quran which condemned absolutely any innovative practices. Therefore, the fundamentalist Christians and extremist Muslims have the same archetypal Capricorn association. As Capricorn is the sign of the goat, this means these two groups are destined to head-butt each other.

Monumental scientific developments continued with Galileo’s Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World in 1632 CE; Descartes’s Discourse on Method in 1637 CE; and Newton’s Principia Mathematic in 1687 CE. The Royal Society dedicated to scientific enterprise was formed in London in 1662 CE. The French Academy of Science was established in 1673 CE. The Greenwich Observatory opened in 1675 CE, leading to another benchmark for time—Greenwich Mean Time. By 1752 CE Benjamin Franklin was experimenting with electricity. In the East, in 1728 CE, the Chinese published an encyclopedia of Chinese knowledge with 10,000 chapters.

A major political shift in influence occurred in Europe with the rise of Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia having a strong central authority sympathetic to the autocratic political model of the French king, Louis XIV. Capricorn’s favorite political and management model is autocracy. Capricorn may seem a poor bedfellow to the arts but again its influence can readily be perceived in its allotted time. The Period of Classical Music is stated to be 1750 to the early 1800s. The renowned musicians of the Classical era were Philipp and Emmanuel Bach, Haydn, Gluck, Mozart, and Beethoven.

The Sagittarian subage (1612–1791 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Sagittarius is the sign of expansion (population explosion), long distance travel, and philosophy.

The first sign of the worldwide explosion to which we remain hostage in the twenty-first century can be found in the agricultural revolution that emerged in England in the early 1700s. This was relatively quickly followed by the beginning of the Industrial Revolution at the end of the same century. The 1700s saw a 40 percent growth in world population, compared to an estimated 18 percent for the preceding century.

Sagittarius’s intellectual orientation saw the Age of Enlightenment with the birth of modern liberal thinking. Two leading intellectuals of the time were Voltaire (1694–1778 CE) followed by Rousseau (1712–1778 CE). The philosophy of the Enlightenment found succor in America and was very influential with America’s founding fathers when they rebelled against the British and set up the USA. This insinuates Sagittarian influence in the USA. By the end of the 1700s, the Enlightenment was replaced by the period of Romanticism. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804 CE) was the most famous of the Romantic philosophers. He published The Critique of Pure Reason in 1781 CE. Basically he stated that everything could not be reduced to pure (Capricorn) logic. This is Sagittarius trying to put the former sign of Capricorn in its place.

Sagittarius subage overflow (1791–1970 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

The most important technological advance of the Industrial Revolution was seen in 1803 CE when steam was used to power vehicles. The first passenger trains in 1825 CE heralded the fossil–energy revolution. Coal as a fuel source graphically illustrates both Capricorn and Sagittarius. Coal is unambiguously grouped with Capricorn, and Sagittarius is a Fire sign. The network of iron railway lines and train services which followed provided a backbone (Capricorn) for nations’ infrastructures and facilitated both long-distance and commuter travel.

The population explosion of the 1700s gained pace, and the 1800s saw a 71 percent population increase in Europe with an even greater worldwide population explosion in the twentieth century. The influence of philosophy continued unabated with Karl Marx (1818–1883 CE), the most influential if not the most contentious philosopher of modern times. Marx provided the rationale for the massive growth of Communism in the early twentieth century, and therefore Marx can be considered one of the most influential people in the world in the twentieth century. The expansionary tide of communism soon came to a grinding halt not long after the end of the Sagittarius subage overflow in 1970 CE.

The Scorpio subage (1791–1970 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Scorpio is the sign of revolution, tyrants, death, nuclear power and weapons, criminals and criminal networks, spies and espionage, and space travel and cultural upheavals. This was quickly demonstrated with the bloodthirsty French Revolution (1789–1799 CE) instigating a reign of death and the appearance of the first tyrant of the subage. At least one in every hundred people in Europe was killed in the Napoleonic Wars. Though Napoleon sidetracked France’s revolutionary zeal under Scorpio, it did not stop the Workers’ Revolution by the “lower” classes in Western nations. Karl Marx is an excellent example of the confluence of the Sagittarius and Scorpio subages. Their success can be measured by the fact that at the beginning of the Scorpio subage in 1791 CE the majority of the world was dominated by hereditary rulers. By the end of the Scorpio subage (1970 CE), nearly all hereditary rulers had been dethroned or had lost all real political power—this was a massive and unparalleled worldwide revolution—the modus operandi of Scorpio! However, revolution did not finish with the workers getting their fair share. The 1969 Woodstock concert marks the new cultural influence of hippies, Flower Power, and leading into the New Age Movement—which at a minimum is the beginning of a nonviolent cultural revolution.

Twentieth-century murderous tyrants such as Stalin and Hitler are indicative of Scorpio. Under Scorpio, the world also experienced the growing power and influence of underground activities, such as the Mafia, triads, and other criminal organizations. Spies and espionage also became significant, especially in the intrigues among the superpowers. The fictional James Bond character demonstrated the widespread interest of the general public in espionage by the close of the Scorpio subage. From an archetypal viewpoint, it could be argued that most Communist and fascist regimes of the twentieth century were really nothing more than criminal organizations that had “come out.”

The greatest technological developments associated with the Scorpio subage were the harnessing of nuclear energy for military and energy needs and the first stage of the exploration of outer space. The first man on Moon in 1969 CE is the apogee of the space race which commenced in the 1950s.

Scorpio subage overflow (1970–2148 CE) of the Aquarius age (1433–3574 CE)

Scorpio is also the sign of sex (and everything associated with sex including genes), pollution, recycling, terrorism, death (including assassinations, the death penalty, euthanasia, longevity, etc.) and minimalism. The Internet is a classic example of cultural minimalism. The Sexual Revolution which began in the 1960s includes birth control and abortion. All other issues associated with sexuality including homosexuality, transvestites, pedophiles, etc., will continue to expand in the Scorpio subage overflow. A negative off-shoot of the Sexual Revolution is AIDS which is often sexually transmitted. AIDS (identified in 1981 CE) remains a serious world problem and some have predicted it will be a scourge, or the scourge of the twenty-first century.

The New Age movement has already been noted in the closing years of the Scorpio subage. It has grown out of the social unrest of the 1960s with a philosophical source in the nineteenth century (i.e., Blavatsky). The 1971 formation of Greenpeace can be considered part of the new environmental awareness implicit within the New Age movement. The New Age movement cannot claim hegemony for cultural developments. Either separately or overlapping the New Age movement is Post-Modernism which places an emphasis on skepticism—especially concerning social morals and normal behavior expected by society. Post-Modernism does not see salvation for the world based on mass production and burgeoning wealth (i.e., from Sagittarian archetypes). Another social or cultural development is the appearance of “political correctness.” The replacement of implied derogatory names with euphemisms (e.g., “mentally retarded” with “intellectually disadvantaged”) indicates a growing hypersensitivity by minority groups.

On the technological front Scorpio has seen the arrival for better or worse of genetic engineering, including genetically modified (GM) food and the cloning of animals and animal tissues. According to scientists, cures for many diseases are expected from genetic engineering. Nuclear power appeared in the Scorpio subage, but the proliferation of nuclear reactors for power has recently experienced a resurgent interest involving the planned construction of many nuclear power stations from around 2007 onward to counter climate change. The adverse affects upon the environment by pollutants is directly attributable to Scorpio. Scorpio rules excrement and pollution is really the excrement of human civilization. With most of the Scorpio subage overflow yet to transpire, pollution is most likely in a severe growth curve for another one and a half centuries at a minimum unless another Scorpio archetype appears with strength—regeneration, transformation of patterns of consumption, and recycling.

Contemporary terrorist activity began with airplane hijackings in the 1980s. Terrorists embody the Scorpio archetype and indicate that terrorism is here for the long haul. The ability for an extremely small group to extract major leverage in world affairs far greater than their numbers is pure Scorpio and aided by their criminal-like underground networks. Many forms of leverage represent Scorpio including leveraged investments such as the futures market, which recently brought the world economy to its knees when it collapsed. Loans are also associated with Scorpio, explaining why most countries in modern times are measured by their debt levels and the average Westerner depends upon credit cards. Other Scorpio developments of note include issues such as the death penalty, minimalism in the arts and design (including acronyms), and sexual overtones in rock music to name a few.


Nothing included in the above analysis of subages proves the exact rectification of subages, and consequently the astrological ages, used in this book—as ultimately the above rectification is based on nano-ages that are not the remit of this book. The above, however, demonstrates the consecutive appearance of the signs Aries, Pisces, Capricorn, Sagittarius, and Scorpio. Due to the Overflow Effect, the strongest influence currently in the world on the subage level is the Scorpio subage overflow (1970–2148 CE). Scorpio is definitely the sign of the times. Between 2005 and 2015 CE lies the Scorpio micro-age decan and overflow. This period will, therefore, be a Scorpio hot spot, and all issues linked to Scorpio will march forward significantly during this ten-year period. This includes: pollution in all its forms and guises (the 2010 CE Gulf of Mexico oil spill is a classic example); the need to manage climate change due to man-made pollution; the growth in nuclear energy for power generation; proliferation of nuclear weapons; another step forward for all types of sexual liberation; reactionary coups against social, cultural, and political reinvigorated societies; recycling and sustainability; assassinations; both the growth and suppression of criminal networks and terrorist groups; sex scandals; calamities and the possibility of calamities (natural and man-made such as the threat of nuclear weapons) that induce a feeling of insecurity and vulnerability, as a few examples of Scorpio archetypes.

The proof that the Aquarian age arrived in 1433 CE is based on thousands of pieces of evidence obtained at all levels from nano-ages (15 months), micro-age decans (5 years), micro-ages (15 years), subage decans (60 years), subages (179 years), age decans, and finally to the ages. I do not consider nano-ages as offering a particularly relevant predictive tool except in very general terms. The main function of nano-ages in my research to date is their ability to fine-tune the ages by ensuring all the layers between nano-ages and ages are correctly positioned in time. Based on the information provided by discovery of the nano-ages, I was able to align the micro-ages correctly to what I believe is within fifteen months accuracy, and this naturally led up the chain of subperiods to the start of the Aquarian age itself. Based on this new approach, the Aquarian age arrived in 1433 CE—or up to fifteen months earlier (the length of a nano-age).

[i] John Britton & Christopher Walker, “Astronomy and Astrology in Mesopotamia,” Astronomy before the Telescope, p. 42

[ii] “The Bull, the Stars, and the Axial Age of Transformation,” Geocosmic Journal, Summer 2006, pp. 61–7

[iii] John Britton & Christopher Walker, “Astronomy and Astrology in Mesopotamia,” Astronomy before the Telescope, p. 46

[iv] The Dawn of Astrology, p. 56

[v] John Britton & Christopher Walker, “Astronomy and Astrology in Mesopotamia,” Astronomy before the Telescope, p. 44

[vi] John Britton & Christopher Walker, “Astronomy and Astrology in Mesopotamia,” Astronomy before the Telescope, p. 49

[vii] The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, p. 102

[viii] The Dawn of Astrology, p. 129

[ix] John Britton & Christopher Walker, “Astronomy and Astrology in Mesopotamia,” Astronomy before the Telescope, p. 51

[x] Fixed stars have a long history and aside from Brady have been in the background—e.g., Vivian Robson/Reinhold Ebertin, etc

[xi] Brady’s Book of Fixed Stars, p. 11

[xii] Rumen Kolev, “Some Reflections about Babylonian Astrology,”

[xiii] The Exact Sciences In Antiquity, p. 98

[xiv] “MUL.APIN.” Wikipedia. Retrieved 02:15, 16 June 2008,

[xv] Ronald A Wells, “Astronomy in Egypt,” Astronomy Before the Telescope, p. 34

[xvi] Shining in the Ancient Sea, p. 41

[xvii] Rumen Kolev, “Some Reflections about Babylonian Astrology,”

[xviii] Babylonian Star-Lore, pp. 8–9

[xix] Babylonian Star-Lore, p. 23

[xx] The Dawn of Astrology, p. 81

[xxi] Sepp Rothwangl, “Considerations About the Start of the Age of Aquarius,” (Retrieved 3 April 2007)

[xxii] John H Rogers, “Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions,” Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 108, 1, 1998, p. 9

[xxiii] The dwad method is technically halfway between the twelfth and thirteenth harmonics

[xxiv] Introduction to Political Astrology (Mundane Astrology), pp. 73–86

[xxv] Introduction to Political Astrology (Mundane Astrology), p. 76

[xxvi] JH Hextor, “Renaissance, Great Ages of Man,” p. 7, Time-Life International (Nederland) N.V., 1969

[xxvii] JR Hale and The Editors, “Renaissance, Great Ages of Man,” p. 11, Time-Life International (Nederland) N.V., 1969

[xxviii] JR Hale and The Editors, “Renaissance, Great Ages of Man,” p. 116, Time-Life International (Nederland) N.V., 1969

[xxix] JR Hale and The Editors, “Renaissance, Great Ages of Man,” p. 128, Time-Life International (Nederland) N.V., 1969

[xxx] JR Hale and The Editors, “Age of Exploration, Great Ages of Man,” p. 14, Time-Life International (Nederland) N.V., 1970

[xxxi] The Book of World Horoscopes, p. 489

[xxxii] Chambers Biographical Dictionary, p. 1151

[xxxiii] Cosmos and Psyche, p. 52

[xxxiv] The Rulership Book, p. 127—Satan is traditionally ruled by Pluto and Saturn, with Saturn the ruler of Capricorn, hence the association between Capricorn and Satan