The Brexit referendum in 2016 occurred early in the Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (Dec 2014 – Dec 2019 – Nov 2024) of the Gemini micro-age (2014 – 2029) of the Libra sub-age (1970 – 2148) – the forth sub-age within the Age of Aquarius (1433 – 3574), and all these zodiacal signs are antithetical to the signs in the astrological signature for the UK. This suggests that Brexit will bring the UK no benefits, but for the short term, it also suggests a damned-if-you-do and damned-if-you-don’t scenario due to the polarization that has occurred in the UK on this issue, very similar to the divide that has embraced the USA under President Trump. Aquarius does not favor the mainstream – it favors extremists, fringes and radicals, and politicians are taking advantage of this temporary rejection of middle-of-the-road politics in an attempt to shift the political agenda to radical or other extremist agendas. The initial impulse has mainly been towards the hard right wing and even neo-fascist side of politics – but it remains early days yet for the current Aquarius period.
My final analysis of Brexit will cover the clash between UK’s astrological signature and the signs of these times, especially the Brexit referendum while this background analysis is based on examining the UK’s performance under previous Aquarius micro-age decans (and micro-ages) as far back as the end of the Age of Pisces. This allows us to find thematic and archetypal diachronic connections that can shed light on Brexit and what it really means for the UK.
Many people think that any random development, such as Brexit, is reasonable if it agrees with their personal political views. For example, is Scotland better off as a separate country or part of the UK? To answer this, it is necessary to understand where the world is heading, because even without astrology, it is obvious that the evolution of civilization does indicate a direction to this evolution, otherwise we would be viewing the murder or killing of people on TV in replication of the Roman circus where such events were considered ‘normal’ to the spectators. There is both progress and acknowledgement that much more progress needs to occur due to numerous shortcomings with society and politics. It is easy to see the benefits and direction of progress over previous centuries and millennia, but how do we project progress into the future so that we can see how present events support or detract from the where the world is heading?
This is outside the scope of this analysis, but the astrology associated with the Age of Aquarius, suggests that the world is approaching greater aggregation, coordination and synchronization with the role of individual nations being sublimated into larger global structures, in the same way over the last millennium, small kingdoms and fiefdoms were combined to form the nation states of today. Small kingdoms and fiefdoms were a problem, and these problems were overcome by their absorption into larger structures that prevented them from fighting or undermining their neighbors. The same issue now faces nation-states that are not adequately synchronized with their neighbors and the world at large, especially in key issues such as climate change, civil rights, religious freedoms, military aggression and so on. I will be updating the last chapter in my book, The Dawning – Shedding New Light on the Astrological Ages, published in 2011, with a revised outline of the future at the first opportunity.
As previously stated, the Brexit referendum in 2016 occurred early in the Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (Dec 2014 – Dec 2019 – Nov 2024) which is based on a five year micro-age decan followed by its overflow onto the following five year period like a wave [see The Age of Aquarius for Dummies]. In simple terms, the world rotates through five year micro-age decans representing all 12 zodiacal signs normally every 60 years (but with some minor variation at the cusp of sub-ages). Therefore all 12 signs are generally granted equal measure to influence events, and if this was solely the case, the world would just go around a merry-go-round with history constantly repeating itself. This means that democracy would usurp monarchs, only for monarchs to again usurp democracy ad infinitum.
However, the merry-go-round scenario is not strictly the case. It is due to resonance of these 5 years micro-age decans to larger periods that the relatively small micro-age decans are biased in their relative strengths with each other. Therefore, since the arrival of the Age of Aquarius, any Aquarius micro-age decan (and Pisces micro-age decan) will have the edge on other micro-age decans due to resonance with the Pisces Age overflow and Age of Aquarius. Every Libra micro-age decan will also be more powerful due to resonance with the Libra age-decan (1433 – 2148). Since 1791, every Scorpio small period will resonate with the Scorpio sub-age and overflow (1791 – 1970 – 2148) and so on. It is these incremental differences between one sub-period and another that provides longer term trends in society. For example, since December 2014, the ages, sub-ages and micro-ages have, for the first time in around 7,000 years, fully aligned themselves to progressive influences but alas, also instability, and this is being played out now [see A Celebration 7,000 Years in the Making ].
The current Aquarius micro-age decan, and following two (Libra and Gemini micro-age decans) are more powerful than average, as each resonates with a larger period – Libra with the Libra age decan (1433 – 2148) and Gemini with the Gemini sub-age decan (1970 – 2029). The larger the parent period, the greater the resonance between periods.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1373 – 1378 – 1382)
This period, set toward the end of the Pisces age (732 BC – 1433 AD), replicates the Brexit Aquarius micro-age decan inasmuch it is part of a Gemini micro-age and Cancer micro-age overflow, but all larger periods are different and they were also more favorable to the British compared to the Brexit period.
The pre-Protestant English Lollards under the Oxford scholar, John Wyclif, went on the attacked against papal authority, and due to some support from the English government, he was able to instigate virtual heresy against the Roman Catholic Church. John Wyclif promoted the reading of the Bible by ordinary people, and he was instrumental in producing the Wyclif Bible translated from Latin into Middle English.[i] Wyclif also promoted the role of the king over the pope and was an iconoclast inasmuch he opposed cherished beliefs and institutions that have become erroneous or pernicious – straight out of the Aquarius cookbook.
This small Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow demonstrates how the astrology of the astrological ages mimics and correlates to historical developments. This Aquarius period promoted revolutionary Aquarian ideals, but this period is not within the Age of Aquarius, so it does not have any real momentum behind it due to lack of resonance. However, when the next similar Aquarius period occurred, it was inside the Age of Aquarius, thus strengthening each and every Aquarian archetype resulting in not just a spat with the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but an actual split creating a completely different social-religious-political structure in Europe that lasted centuries. Resonance makes a big impact.
This Aquarius period witnessed appropriately, the English Peasants Revolt (1381) under Wat Tyler, which was initiated by widespread anger against a poll tax. Tyler led his followers on a march to London, taking Maidstown, Rochester, and Canterbury along the way. They tricked their way into London, marched down Fleet Street, beheaded a judge, archbishop and 18 leading citizens, and instigated even greater fury against the Flemish community. During negotiations with the King Richard II, the London mayor mortally struck Tyler with a sword, and the revolution was over, though the king pardoned all the assailants. Nevertheless, a major revolutionary assault was made against the British government in this early Aquarius period, and this really sets the tone for these Aquarius periods.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1468 – 1473 – 1478)
This period occurs within the Age of Aquarius and is part of a Libra micro-age. Royalty strongly figures in this period with the murder of insane King Henry VI in the Tower of London allowing for the reinstatement of Edward IV, part of the ongoing struggle between the houses of York and Lancashire and called the War of the Roses (1455 – 1487). This was definitely a period in Britain where the British royalty and therefore the government were in gross detriment which played itself out in the War of the Roses.
The full extent of the War of the Roses was probably an attribute of the Scorpio micro-age and overflow (1448 – 1463 – 1478) with Scorpio always a troublesome sign for the Taurus British. Also, the War of the Roses occurred in the Virgo sub-age decan (1433 – 1493) with Virgo opposed to Pisces, a sign that is associated with the British. Murdering the head of government continues the theme of angst between Aquarius and Leo Britain.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1523 – 1528 – 1533)
This period partly replicates the Brexit Aquarius period due to its location in a Gemini micro-age. This Aquarius period is associated with the reign of King Henry VIII including the annulment of his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon and the beginning of the English Reformation – a major revolutionary event in its day. The English Reformation is considered a part of the wider European Protestant Reformation, instigated by the (German) Martin Luther in this small Aquarius period with the new Protestants breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church and rejecting the authority of the Pope, extremely appropriate for revolutionary Aquarius. In hindsight, the Reformation was an early symptom of the newly arrived Age of Aquarius promoting democracy and rejecting (Leo) leaders, as the new Protestant churches instigated a number of democratic processes associated with congregations into its structures.
Martin Luther’s role also supports the long term association of Aquarius with Germany. In this case King Henry VIII wittingly, or unwittingly, sided with the revolutionary Luther in opposing the (Leo) might of the pope and Roman Catholic Church but for purely personal self-seeking reasons. The internal turmoil created by the English Reformation lasted until the Glorious Revolution in the following similar Aquarius micro-age decan in 1688.
This Aquarius period occurred in the lead up to the peak of the Taurus sub-age decan (1493 – 1552), and with such strong support from Taurus, and from the Capricorn quasi sub-age (1523 – 1702), another sign favorable to the British, the greatest loser here was the external Roman Catholic Church with Britain formally leaving the fold. The Roman Catholic Church has Pisces and Scorpio at the top of its totem pole, and this Aquarius period was greatly influenced by Taurus and Virgo – both antithetical to the Christian church. The Taurus sub-age decan (1493 – 1552) is also the same period as the overlapping Virgo sub-age decan overflow – bad news for Pisces-Scorpio Christianity.
Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1582 – 1597 – 1612)
The anti-royal flavor of Aquarius quickly manifested when in 1587, Queen Elizabeth had Catholic Queen Mary beheaded. In the following year, the Spanish unleashed their invasion Armada against the British, only to have it disintegrate due to adverse weather and better tactics of the British with the Spanish losing 65 ships and 10,000 men compared to the English losing no ships and less than 100 men. Nevertheless, Queen Elizabeth scrapped with Parliament in 1593, where she asserted the monarchical right to assent or disagree with Parliament, and that religious matters and foreign affairs were the domain of the monarch. The newly elected parliamentarians from the middle class had another perspective.
The death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 saw the thrones of England and Scotland combined under King James VI. Catholic Guy Fawkes was foiled in his attempt to kill King James VI and blow up Parliament in 1605 leading to centuries of fireworks for many British and their descendants around the world. Despite winning against the Spanish, this Aquarius period again demonstrates the traumatic events in Britain under Aquarius, and associated with a royal execution, and attempted royal murder. However, this small Aquarius period witnessed the birth of the American colonies, establishing their revolutionary spirit from birth under Aquarius.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1627 – 1632 – 1637)
This finds England under the reign of King Charles I (1600 – 1649) who believed in the divine right of kings, and so this Aquarius period witnessed a feud between the king and parliament with the general public opposed to his policies, especially taxation without parliamentary consent and his behavior as an absolute monarch. Ultimately this cost him his head. This is a straightforward anti-monarch period, but also a difficult period for the British as should be expected when Aquarius is strong.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1687 – 1692 – 1697)
The main game in town was the Glorious Revolution (1688) with the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch William III, Prince of Orange, who was James’s nephew and son-in-law. William’s successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689. The initial dissent occurred due to the likelihood that King James’s Catholic son would take the British throne and therefore create the establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty. Working with British parliamentarians, William successfully launched a large invasion fleet in 1688, and following the defeat of King James’s forces, James fled England. This revolution or invasion again indicates the ability of Aquarius to deeply undermine the integrity of Britain.
For British Catholics its effects were disastrous, both socially and politically, as for over a century Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in Parliament; they were also denied commissions in the army, and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic – this latter prohibition remaining in force until 2015. Of course, the subsequent persecution of Catholics is good old Aquarius fascism. It has been argued, mainly by Whig historians, that James’s overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power.[ii]
The English Bill of Rights set out certain basic civil rights and clarified royal succession and laid down limits on the powers of the (Leo) monarch and sets out the rights of (Aquarius) Parliament, including the requirement for regular parliaments, free elections, and freedom of speech in Parliament. It sets out certain rights of individuals including the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment and reestablished the right of Protestants to have arms for their defense within the rule of law. The Bill of Rights 1689 was one of the inspirations for the Bill of Rights in the USA.[iii]
This period is the source of America’s gun-toting culture as this Aquarius period was situated in the strongest part of the Aries sub-age decan and overflow (1612 – 1672 – 1731), that influenced the early years of the British settlement of North America. While the British moved on, many Americans have held fast to Aries inspired guns as the formative period for any nation is highly influential in creating national myths.
Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1746 – 1761 – 1776)
This Aquarius period relates to the 20th century Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 – 1940), and as a preview to the disastrous early 20th century for the UK, in this 18th century period, it ended with the beginning of the American War of Independence leading to the loss of its American colonies. This period also included the first war waged on a global scale, and therefore is a precursor to the two world wars in the 20th century. The Seven year’s War (1756 – 1763) went extremely well for the UK making the UK the dominant world power. This all occurred mainly in the first half of this Aquarius period, which coincides with the Pisces micro-age overflow (1746 – 1761) which probably astrologically accounts for this war as Europe always splits under Pisces, despite Pisces being its most influential sign.
The second half of this Aquarius period is closely aligned to the growing dissent within the Thirteen Colonies in North America leading to the beginning of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. This Aquarius period is located near the peak of the Sagittarius juggernaut associated with the massive Sagittarius quasi micro-age (1702 – 1881) which propelled the UK into the stratosphere. Nevertheless, the conditions that led to the loss of the thirteen colonies must be viewed as an unfortunate event for the British.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1791 – 1796 – 1801)
This Aquarius period occurred in the Libra micro-age (1791 – 1806), at the very beginning of the Scorpio sub-age (1791 – 1970), and is in a period of astrological strength for the UK being at the highpoint of the Sagittarius sub-age and overflow (1612 – 1791 – 1970), with a special positive and strong Sagittarius focus on the period 1791 – 1881. The UK jumped on to this Sagittarius period with the Industrial Revolution and then went on and created the greatest empire the world has ever experienced. Therefore, any difficulty experienced in an antithetical Aquarius micro-age decan is like a mouse being trod on by an elephant.
It is appropriate that this period commences with a quote from Thomas Paine “There is a dawn of reason rising in the world” as a salute to Aquarius, though it did not help him as he was executed in revolutionary France in 1794
The major issue that impacted the UK naturally was the French Revolution which was already in progress, but turned nasty under extremist Aquarius. The English and European royalty were naturally highly concerned that one of their members had been usurped by a popular revolution championing freedom and justice. This revolution found sympathizers in the UK who were subdued by the British government, one way or another. In response to Irish nationalists invigorated by the French Revolution, in 1791 the Protestants in Northern Ireland formed the Orange Society to protect their interests.
By 1792, reformers in England created organizations such as the Corresponding Society of London which called for male suffrage, annual parliaments, fairer land and legal systems, lower taxes, better education, prison reform and basic social security for the poor and elderly. In 1795 Britain invaded the Cape Colony in South Africa and subdued the revolutionary Boers who had already driven out the Dutch officials. In 1797 there were numerous mutinies in the Royal Navy perched to wage war against the revolutionary French.
Great Britain in 1793 orchestrated a union of European nations to protect the crowned heads of Europe against the French and demanded the French to restore their monarchy. As part of these frenetic times for European royalty and the status quo, the British instituted a savage response to dissenters in Scotland where the head judge decreed the British constitution was perfect, and therefore anyone proposing amendments was an enemy of state. Some revolutionary Scots were meeting their Irish counterparts in France.
By 1799, societies such as the Corresponding Society of London had been banned, their leaders imprisoned, trade unionists suppressed and newspaper heavily censored – to keep Aquarius’ fascist side invigorated. At the end of this period, Prime Minister William Pitt was forced to quit after suggesting to King George III that because of the dissolution of the Irish government and its amalgamation with Westminster, that British Catholics should be legally emancipated. This threw the mad king into a rage, and again we see the antipathy here between Aquarius and royalty – though he did not literally lose his head.
The Irish uprising and attempted French invasion of Ireland in 1798 was followed by the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, and therefore the UK does have some minor inclusion of Aquarius in its astrological signature, but dwarfed by Sagittarius.
Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow (1851 – 1856 – 1861)
This period is another partial replica of the Brexit-Aquarius period and found the UK in the midst of the Victorian era (1837 – 1901) and strategically located in Britain’s ‘Golden Years.’ (1850–1870). The main difference between the Aquarius period covering 1851 to 1860 compared to the current one (2014 – 2024) is that while both were also associated with a Cancer sub-age overflow, this 19th century Aquarian period was also at the peak of the Cancer sub-age decan and overflow (1792 – 1851 – 1910) which magnifies the power of Cancer at least threefold (and probably nine fold) compared to 2014 to 2024. The absolutely strongest time for Cancer in this period was the period 1851 to 1881, tightly coinciding with Britain’s time of might (1850 – 1870), and substantiating the strong British association to Cancer through their Saxon roots. Therefore, it is necessary to weed out the Cancer influence that significantly contributed in pushing the UK to its greatest heights, and seek Aquarius in the cracks. This Aquarius period is therefore not the ideal comparison with the current one.
Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia (1851 – 1856), and Russia has Aquarius high up its totem pole, and thus the most vexing military issue in the Victorian era was Russia, and nothing much has changed. Leo UK and Aquarius Russia were designed to be sparring partners. In the 1856 Treaty of Paris, Russia was prohibited from hosting a military presence in the Crimea and prevented from invading Turkey.[iv]
The Second Opium War saw Britain overpower the Qing dynasty in China and was the standard act of European imperialism and from the astrological context, (Leo) UK can be in fighting mode in any Aquarius period invoking the 7th house of opposition. Of course, the Second Opium War had the UK become the major drug pusher of the period. However, the UK was representative of the peak of European civilization, and this behavior was considered ‘normal’ at the time as Europeans considered that they were superior to other people around the world.
The most radical intellectual development appropriate to this Aquarius period was the publication by Charles Darwin of “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. The book aroused international interest and a widespread debate, with no sharp line between scientific issues and ideological, social and religious implications. Much of the initial reaction was hostile, but Darwin had to be taken seriously as a prominent and respected name in science. The major reactionary elements in this case was the Church, and demonstrates that in Aquarius periods, great leaps towards rationality can be made, but medieval reactionaries get fired up in defending their former positions of power.[v]
It is appropriate that in an Aquarius period, opposed to Leo ego, that that the human ego should be put back into its place. This ground breaking book was another major wedge driven between religions based on (Pisces) belief systems and (Aquarius) rationality. In the same way that in previous centuries, the Church opposed a Sun-centered solar system, with Charles Darwin suggesting that humans are related to chimpanzees, in both situations, it is the ego of humans that consider themselves superior and at the center of the universe that is undermined by Aquarian scientific advances. This exact same situation is replicated today in the issue of other evolved intelligent life existing elsewhere in the universe, with many promoting the statistically absurd notion that we are alone in the universe. The hairless chimpanzee always seems to extend its shelf life no matter how much progress towards rationality has occurred in the world. The hairless chimpanzee remains highly influential in world affairs until at least the end of the Pisces quasi-age in 2503 AD!
Another demonstration of Aquarius was the Indian Rebellion of 1857, known in India and Pakistan more correctly as the First War of Independence, which was a major uprising in India during 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company. This is a classic example of (Leo) imperial power squashing the rights of people, and treating them as second class citizens due to their different race. Unfortunately, the Cancer sub-age decan and overflow combined with the Sagittarius sub-age overflow greatly favored the imperialism of Great Britain at this point of time, who naturally considered that they were superior. A good argument can be made that the Leo aura associated with the British royalty, has over the centuries, descended to the average British person who feel that they are also somehow superior, and why would superior people need to be bound to their neighbors in the European Union?
Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 -1925 – 1940)
Apart from the calamitous two world wars, and loss of the largest empire the world has experienced to date, the prime archetypal event of the period was the abdication in 1936 by King Edward VIII. He seemed enamored by Aquarius archetypes due to his “apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions” followed by his proposal of marriage to a woman who had already been married twice – obviously a hanging offense in staid conservative UK in the 1930s. Aquarius likes tripping up staid conservatives. Due to the impossible position he found himself in, Edward VIII simply abdicated and became one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history. He appeared to have also been captivated by Hitler’s cult, and even gave a full Nazi salute in 1937 while visiting Germany.[vi] Aquarius fans the fires of fascism and progress.
However, this Aquarius period witnessed the opening scene for Britain’s “Darkest Hour”, coined by British prime minister Winston Churchill to describe the period of World War II between the Fall of France in June 1940 and the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 when the UK was under threat of imminent invasion. This says enough of the antipathy of Aquarius to the UK. This technically was not in the Aquarius micro-age decan, but it was due to the UK taking its eye off the ball in the 1930s that they almost lost their eye and ball as well. The British can be at the height of their collective stupidity in an Aquarius period, and the lead up to the Second World War was a classic example of this innate British stupidity.
To be contextually correct, the two world wars were not solely due to this Aquarius micro-age decan and overflow, but to the far more powerful Pisces sub-age decan and overflow (1851 – 1910 – 1970) with the most powerful quarter ruling the period 1910 – 1940. This already powerful Pisces sub-age decan and overflow resonated with the super-massive Pisces age overflow (1433 – 3574) and this strength of Pisces will not be replicated in the world for around another 25,000 years. Europe is primarily ruled by Pisces, but whenever Pisces is strong, not only is there a focus upon Europe, but also on the two fish swimming in opposite directions. Europe always splits under Pisces, and both world wars demonstrated again this massive and major split endemic to Europe (and passed along to the USA). World wars are not a one-in-every-hundred-year event, but require a massive astrological underpinning – though in reality, apart from Japan in the Second World War, both world wars were really two European wars of self-destruction – entirely appropriate for Pisces. Also, the Aquarius micro-age and overflow (1910 – 1925 – 1940) sits at the 12th house position to Pisces.
The common themes of these Aquarius periods are: trauma, such as attempted and actual invasions and revolutions; overthrow or assault on the monarch/government (including murder, executions and abdication) and loss, such as the American colonies and British Empire – combined with the extreme loss of clarity in the lead up to the Second World War, where it tried to appease Hitler (an extremely hard right and fascist leader), and now repeating this process on a smaller scale with the same lack of clarity in holding the Brexit referendum to appease the hard right politicians in the UK. The UK, and its previous incarnations, is rarely on hallowed ground under Aquarius. There is absolutely no support to the concept that the Brexit imbroglio is a strengthening or positive step for the UK based on the previous association of Britain to previous Aquarius micro-ages or micro-age decans. The exact opposite is indicated – the UK is usually in dire circumstances in these small Aquarius periods, even though this was self-inflicted due to the Tory government under Prime Minister Cameron trying to appease the hard right politicians in his party. Prime Minister Cameron, along with many people, was shocked by the outcome of the referendum, in the same way that the majority of Americans were shocked by the election of Donald Trump as president. One attribute of Aquarius is its ability to shock. The current Aquarius period remains emergent, so expect even greater lightening bolts from December 2019 onward when it goes into its more powerful overflow mode. We have seen the effects of reactionary politics under Trump and Brexit, but the reaction to the reactionary side usually follows.
[i]John Wycliffe, Wikipedia, Retrieved 05:42, March 2, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Wycliffe&oldid=884169726
[ii] Glorious Revolution, Wikipedia, Retrieved 09:48, January 24, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glorious_Revolution&oldid=878883115
[iii] Bill of Rights 1689, Wikipedia. Retrieved 09:53, January 24, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_of_Rights_1689&oldid=879887535
[iv] Victorian era, Wikipedia, Retrieved 08:32, January 24, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victorian_era&oldid=878623966
[v] On the Origin of Species, Wikipedia, Retrieved 09:00, January 24, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=On_the_Origin_of_Species&oldid=879802889
[vi] Edward VIII, Wikipedia, Retrieved 06:11, March 2, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_VIII&oldid=885581676